Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4,11- 1.4.15

Verse 1.4.11:
ब्रह्म व इदमग्र आसीदेकमेव; तदेकं सन्न व्यभवत् । तच्छ्रेयोरूपमत्यसृजत क्षत्रम्, यान्येतानि देवत्रा क्षत्राणि—इन्द्रो वरुणः सोमो रुद्रः पर्जन्यो यमो मृइत्युरीशान इति । तस्मात्क्षत्रात्परं नस्ति; तस्मात्ब्राह्मणः क्षत्रियमधस्तादुपास्ते राजसूये, क्षत्र एव तद्यशो दधाति; सैषा क्षत्रस्य योनिर्यद्ब्रह्म । तस्माद्यद्यपि राजा परमताम् गच्छति ब्रह्मैवान्तत उपनिश्रयति स्वाम् योनिम्; य उ एनं हिनस्ति स्वां स योनिमृच्छति, स पापीयान् भवति, यथा स्रेयांसं हिंसित्वा ॥ ११ ॥
brahma va idamagra āsīdekameva; tadekaṃ sanna vyabhavat | tacchreyorūpamatyasṛjata kṣatram, yānyetāni devatrā kṣatrāṇi—indro varuṇaḥ somo rudraḥ parjanyo yamo mṛityurīśāna iti | tasmātkṣatrātparaṃ nasti; tasmātbrāhmaṇaḥ kṣatriyamadhastādupāste rājasūye, kṣatra eva tadyaśo dadhāti; saiṣā kṣatrasya yoniryadbrahma | tasmādyadyapi rājā paramatām gacchati brahmaivāntata upaniśrayati svām yonim; ya u enaṃ hinasti svāṃ sa yonimṛcchati, sa pāpīyān bhavati, yathā sreyāṃsaṃ hiṃsitvā || 11 ||
11. [Page 174] In the beginning this (the Kṣatriya and other castes) was indeed Brahman,[45]one only. Being one, he did not flourish. He specially projected an excellent form, the Kṣatriya—those who are Kṣatriyas among the gods: Indra, Varuṇa, the moon, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Death, and Iśāna. Therefore there is none higher than the Kṣatriya. Hence the Brāhmaṇa worships the Kṣatriya from a lower position in the Rājasūya sacrifice. He imparts that glory to the Kṣatriya. The Brāhmaṇa is the source of the Kṣatriya. Therefore, although the king attains supremacy (in the sacrifice), at the end of it he resorts to the Brāhmaṇa, his source. He who slights the Brahmaṇa, strikes at his own source. He becomes more wicked, as one is by slighting one’s superior.
In the beginning this, the Kṣatriya and other castes, was indeed Brahman, identical with that Brahman (Virāj) who after manifesting Fire assumed the form of that. He is called Brahman, because he identified himself with the Brāhmaṇa caste. One only:Then there was no differentiation into other [Page 175] castes such as the Kṣatriya. Being one, i.e. without any protector etc. such as the Kṣatriya, he did not flourish, i.e. could not do his Work properly. Hence he, Virāj, thinking, ‘I am a Brāhmaṇa, and these are my duties,’ in order to create duties pertaining to a Brāhmaṇa by birth—to glorify himself as a performer of rites— specially, pre-eminently, projected an excellent form. What is that? The caste called Kṣatriya. This is being pointed out by a reference to its individuals. Those who are well known in the world as Kṣatriyas among the gods. The plural is used (in ‘Kṣatriyas’), as in grammar a word denoting a caste may be optionally in the plural.[46] Or because there are many individuals in a caste, the difference is figuratively transferred to the group. Who are they? This the text answers by mentioning particularly the anointed ones: Indra, the King of gods; Varuṇa, of the aquatic animals; the moon, of the Brāhmaṇas; Rudra, of the beasts; Parjanya, of lightning etc.; Yama, of the Manes; Death,of disease etc.; and Iśāna, of luminaries. These are some of the Kṣatriyas, among the gods. It should be understood that after them the human Kṣatriyas, Purūravas and others belonging to the Lunar and Solar dynasties, presided over by the Kṣatriya gods, Indra and the rest, were also created. For the creation of the gods is mentioned for this very purpose. Because Virāj created the Kṣatriyas with some special eminence attached to them, therefore there is none higher than the Kṣatriya, who is the controller of the Brāhmaṇa caste even. [Page 176] Hence the Brāhmaṇa, although he is the source of him, worships the Kṣatriya, who has a higher seat, from a lower position. Where? In the Rājasūya sacrificeHe imparts that glory or fame which belongs to him, viz. the title of Brahman, to the Kṣatriya. That is to say, when the king, anointed for the Rājasūya sacrifice, addresses the priest from his chair as ‘Brahman.’ the latter replies to him, ‘You, O King, are Brahman.’ This is referred to in the sentence, ‘He imparts that glory to the Kṣatriya.’ The Brāhmaṇa, who is the topic under consideration, is indeed the source of the Kṣatriya. Therefore, although the king attains supremacy, viz. the distinction of being anointed for the Rājasūya sacrifice, at the end of it, when the ceremony is over, he resorts to the Brāhmaṇa, his source, i.e. puts the priest forward. But he who, proud of his strength, slights or looks down upon the Brāhmaṇa, his own source, strikes at or destroys his own source. He becomes more wicked by doing this. The Kṣatriya is already wicked on account of his cruelty, and he is more so by hurting his own source, as in life one is more wicked by slighting one’s superior.

Verse 1.4.12:
स नैव व्यभवत्, स विशमसृजत, यान्येतानि देवजातानि गणश आख्यायन्ते—वसवो रुद्रा आदित्या विश्वेदेवा मरुत इति ॥ १२ ॥
sa naiva vyabhavat, sa viśamasṛjata, yānyetāni devajātāni gaṇaśa ākhyāyante—vasavo rudrā ādityā viśvedevā maruta iti || 12 ||
12. Yet he did not flourish. He projected the Vaiśya—those species of gods who are designated in groups: The Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Viśvadevas and Maruts.
[Page 177] Yet, even after projecting the Kṣatriyas, he, Virāj, did not flourish in his work, as before, for want of someone to acquire wealth. He projected the Vaiśya, in order to acquire wealth which is the means of performing rites. Who is that Vaiśya? Those species of gods who are designated in groups. The Vaiśyas abound in groups, for they succeed in acquiring wealth mostly in combination, not singly.—The suffix in the word 'Jāta' does not change the meaning.— The Vasus, a group of eight; similarly the eleven Rudras, the twelve Ādityas, the thirteen Viśvadevas, sons of Viśvā, or the word may mean ‘all the gods,’ and the forty-nine Maruts, in seven groups.

Verse 1.4.13:
स नैव व्यभवत्, स शौद्रं वर्णमसृजत पूषणम्; इयं वै पूषा, इयं हीदं सर्वं पुष्यति यदिदं किंच ॥ १३ ॥
sa naiva vyabhavat, sa śaudraṃ varṇamasṛjata pūṣaṇam; iyaṃ vai pūṣā, iyaṃ hīdaṃ sarvaṃ puṣyati yadidaṃ kiṃca || 13 ||
13. He did not still flourish. He projected the śūdra caste—Pūṣan. This (earth) is Pūṣan. For it nourishes all this that exists.
For want of a servant he did not still flourish. He projected the Śūdra caste. In the word ‘Śaudra’ there is a lengthening of the vowel without any change of meaning. What was this Śūdra caste that was projected? Pūṣan, he who nourishes. Who is this Pūṣan? He is being particularly pointed out: This


Verse 1.4.14:
स नैव व्यभवत्, तत्छ्रेयोरूपमत्यसृजत धर्मम्; तदेतत् क्षत्रस्य क्षत्रं यद्धर्मः, तस्माद्धर्माद्परं नास्ति; अथो अबलीयान् बलीयांसमाशंसते धर्मेण, यथा राज्ञैवम्; यो वै स धर्मः सत्यं वै तत्, तस्मात् सत्यं वदन्तमाहुः, धर्मं वदतीति, धर्मं वा वदन्तम् सत्यं वदतीति, एतद्ध्येवैतदुभयं भवति ॥ १५ ॥
sa naiva vyabhavat, tatchreyorūpamatyasṛjata dharmam; tadetat kṣatrasya kṣatraṃ yaddharmaḥ, tasmāddharmādparaṃ nāsti; atho abalīyān balīyāṃsamāśaṃsate dharmeṇa, yathā rājñaivam; yo vai sa dharmaḥ satyaṃ vai tat, tasmāt satyaṃ vadantamāhuḥ, dharmaṃ vadatīti, dharmaṃ vā vadantam satyaṃ vadatīti, etaddhyevaitadubhayaṃ bhavati || 14 ||
14. [Page 178] Yet he did not flourish. He specially projected that excellent form, righteousness (Dharma).[47] This righteousness is the controller of the Kṣatriya. Therefore there is nothing higher than that. (So) even a weak man hopes (to defeat) a stronger man through righteousness, as (one contending) with the king.[48] That righteousness is verily truth. Therefore they say about a person speaking of truth, ‘He speaks of righteousness,’ or about a person speaking of righteousness,’ He speaks of truth,’ for both these are but righteousness.
Yet, even after projecting the four castes, he did not flourish, fearing that the Kṣatriya, being fierce, might be unruly. He specially projected that excellent form. What is it? Righteousness. This righteousness, the projected excellent form, is the controller of even the Kṣatriya, fiercer than that fierce race even. ‘Yat’ should be changed into ‘Yah.’ Therefore, since it is the controller of even the Kṣatriya, there is nothing higher than that, for it controls all. The text proceeds to explain how it is: So even a weak man hopes to defeat a stronger man than himself through the strength of righteousness, asin life a householder contending [Page 179] even with the king, who is the most powerful of all. Therefore it goes without saying that righteousness, being stronger than everything else, is the controller of all.That righteousness, which is expressed as conduct, being practised by people, is verily truth. ‘Truth’ is the fact of being in accordance with the scriptures. The same thing, when it is practised, is called righteousness, and when it is understood to be in accordance with the scriptures, is truth. Since it is so,therefore bystanders knowing the difference between them say about a person speaking of truth, i.e. what is in accordance with the scriptures, in dealing with another, ‘He speaks of righteousness,’ or well known conventional propriety. Conversely also, about a person speaking of rīghteousness or conventional conduct, they say, ‘He speaks of truth,’ or what is in accordance with the scriptures. For both these that have been described, that which is known and that which is practised, are but rīghteousness. Therefore that righteousness in its double aspect of knowledge and practice controls all, those that know the scriptures as well as those that do not. Therefore it is the ‘controller of the Kṣatriya.’ Hence an ignorant man identified with righteousness, in order to practise its particular forms, identifies himself with one or other of the castes, Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya or Śūdra, which is the pre-condition of that practice; and these are naturally the means that qualify one for the performance of rites.

Verse 1.4.15:
तदेतद्ब्रह्म क्षत्रं विद् शूद्रः; तदग्निनैव देवेषु ब्रह्माभवत्; ब्राह्मणो मनुष्येषु, क्षत्रियेण क्षत्रियो, वैश्येन वैश्यह्, सूद्रेण शूद्रः; तस्मादग्नावेव देवेषु लोकमिच्छन्ते, ब्राह्मणे मनुष्येषु, एताभ्यां हि रूपाभ्यां ब्रह्माभवत् । अथ यो ह वा अस्माल्लोकात्स्वं लोकमदृष्त्वा प्रैति, स एनमविदितो न भुनक्ति, यथा वेदो  वाननूक्तः, अन्यद्वा कर्माकृतम्; यदिह वा अप्यनेवंविन्महत्पुण्यं कर्म करोति, तद्धास्यान्ततः क्षीयत एव; आत्मानमेव लोकमुपासीत; स य आत्मानमेव लोकमुपास्ते, न हस्य कर्म क्षीयते । अस्माद्ध्येवात्मनो यद्यत्कामयते तत्तत्सृजते ॥ १४ ॥
tadetadbrahma kṣatraṃ vid śūdraḥ; tadagninaiva deveṣu brahmābhavat; brāhmaṇo manuṣyeṣu, kṣatriyeṇa kṣatriyo, vaiśyena vaiśyah, sūdreṇa śūdraḥ; tasmādagnāveva deveṣu lokamicchante, brāhmaṇe manuṣyeṣu, etābhyāṃ hi rūpābhyāṃ brahmābhavat | atha yo ha vā asmāllokātsvaṃ lokamadṛṣṭvā praiti, sa enamavidito na bhunakti, yathā vedo  vānanūktaḥ, anyadvā karmākṛtam; yadiha vā apyanevaṃvinmahatpuṇyaṃ karma karoti, taddhāsyāntataḥ kṣīyata eva; ātmānameva lokamupāsīta; sa ya ātmānameva lokamupāste, na hasya karma kṣīyate | asmāddhyevātmano yadyatkāmayate tattatsṛjate || 14 ||
15. [Page 180] (So) these (four castes were projected)— the Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. He became a. Brāhmaṇa among the gods as Fire, and among then as the Brāhmaṇa. (He became) a Kṣatriya through the (divine) Kṣatriyas, a Vaiśya through the (divine) Vaiśyas and a Śūdra through the (divine) Śūdra. Therefore people desire to attain the results of their rites among the gods through fire, and among men as the Brāhmaṇa. For Brahmaṇ was in these two forms. If, however, anybody departs from this world without realising his own world (the Self), It, being unknown, does not protect him—as the Vedas not studied, or any other work not undertaken (do not). Even if a man who does not know It as such performs a great many meritorious acts in the world, those acts of his are surely exhausted in the end. One should meditate only upon the world of the Self. He who meditates only upon the world called the Self never has his work exhausted. From this very Self he projects whatever he wants.
(So) these four castes were projected— the Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. They are repeated here together in order to introduce what follows. He, Brahman, the Projector (Virāj), became a Brāhmaṇa among the gods as Fire, and in no other form, and became a Brāhmaṇa among men as the Brāhmaṇa, directly. In the other castes he appeared in a changed form[49]: (He bceame) a Kṣatriya through the
(divine) Kṣatriyas, i.e. being presided over by Indra and other gods; a Vaiśya through the (divine)Vaiśyas[50] and a Śūdra through the (divine) Śūdra.[51] Because Brahman, the Projector, was changed in the Kṣatriya and other castes, and was unchanged in Fire and the Brāhmaṇa, therefore people desire to attain the results of their rites among the gods through fire, i.e. by performing rites connected with it. It is for this purpose that Brahman abides in the form of fire, which is the receptacle in which sacrificial rites are performed. Therefore it stands to reason that people wish to attain results by performing those rites in the fire. And among men as the Brāhmaṇa: If they want human results, there is no need for rites depending on fire etc., but simply by being born as a Brāhmaṇa they attain their life’s ends. And it is only when they desire to attain results that depend on the gods, that they have to resort to rites connected with fire. The Smṛti, too, says, ‘But a Brāhmaṇa may undoubtedly attain perfection through the repetition of sacred formulæ,[52] whether he does other rites (connected with fire) or not. A Brāhmaṇa is one who is friendly to all’ (M. II. 87). Also because the monastic life is open to him only. Therefore people seek to attain the results of their rites, so far as they belong to the human plane, by attaining Brāhmaṇahood. For Brahman, the Projector, was directly in these two forms, the Brāhmaṇa and fire, that are respectively the agent and the receptacle of the rites.
Some[53] explain the passage differently, saying that people wish to realise the world of the Supreme Self by means of fire and the Brāhmaṇa.[54] This is wrong, for the division of castes has been introduced in order to defend the undertaking of rites by people who are under ignorance, and a specification also follows. If the word ‘world’ here refers to the Supreme Self, the specification that follows, viz. ‘Without realising one’s own world (the Self),’ would be meaningless. If the world in question that is prayed for as being dependent on fire, is any other world but the Self, then only the specification by the word ‘own’ would be consistent as refuting that extraneous world. The world that is the Self is always denoted by the words ‘one’s own,’ while those that are created by ignorance can never be ‘one’s own.’ That the worlds attained through rites are not [Page 183] ‘one’s own' is stated by the words, ‘(Those acts) are surely exhausted.’
One may object: Brahman projected the four castes for the sake of ritualistic work. And that work, called righteousness, being obligatory on all, controls all and helps them to achieve their life’s ends. Therefore, if by that work one attains one’s own world called the Supreme Self, although It may be unknown, what is the good of setting It up as the goal? This is being answered: ‘If, however, —the word ‘however’ refutes the prima facie view— anybody, owing to identification with the rites depending on fire, or with the duties belonging to the Brāhmaṇa caste, departs or dies from thistransmigratory, adventitious and extraneous world consisting of the taking up of a body and caused by ignorance, desire and work, without realising his own world called the Self—because It is always one’s own Self—as, ‘I am Brahman,’ It —although It is his own world, yet— being unknown,obstructed by ignorance and therefore virtually becoming extraneous to oneself, does not protect himby removing his evils such as grief, delusion and fear—as the man in the story[55] (the conventional ‘self’) fails to protect himself for not knowing that he is the missing tenth man. As the Vedas not studied do not protect a man by enlightening him on the rites etc., or any other, secular, work, e.g. agriculture, not undertaken, not manifested in its own form, does not protect anybody by bestowing its results, similarly the Supreme Self, although It is one’s [Page 184] own world, on account of not being manifested in Its own form as the eternal Self, does not protect one by destroying one’s ignorance etc.
Objection: What is the good of seeking protection through the realisation of one’s own world, the Self? Since the rites are sure to produce results, and there are a great many rites conducive to beneficent results, the protection that they will afford will be everlasting.
Reply: Not so, for anything made is perishable. This is-being stated: Even if a man, a wonderful genius, who does not know It, his own world, the Self, as such, in the manner described above, continuously performs a great many meritorious acts such as the horse sacrifice, producing only beneficent results, in the world, with the idea that through those alone he will attain eternity, those acts of his, of this ignorant man, being due to desire created by ignorance, are surely exhausted in the end,when he has enjoyed their fruits, like the splendour arising from the fantasy of a dream. They are bound to be perishable, for their causes, ignorance and desire, are unstable. Hence there is no hope whatsoever that the protection afforded by the results of meritorious acts will be eternal. Therefore one should meditate only upon the world of the Self, one’s own world. The word ‘Self’ is here used in an identical sense with the last words, for ‘one’s own world’ is the topic, and here the words ‘one’s own’ are omitted. He who meditates only upon the world of the Self —what happens to him?— never has his work exhausted, simply because he has no work. This is a restatement of an eternal fact. That is to say, an ignorant man continuously suffers from the misery of [Page 185] transmigration by way of exhaustion of the results of his work. Not so this sage. As Emperor Janaka said, ‘If Mithilā is ablaze, nothing of mine is burning' (Mbh. XII. clxxvi. 56).
Some say that the ritualistic work itself of a sage who meditates upon the world of his own Self never decays, because of its combination with meditation. And they interpret the word ‘world’ as inseparably connected with rites in a double aspect: One is the manifested world called Hiraṇyagarbha, which is the repository of ritualistic work, and he who meditates upon this manifested, limited world connected with ritualistic work has his work exhausted, for he identifies himself with the result of limited work. But he who meditates upon that very world connected with work by reducing it to its causal form, the undifferentiated state, does not have his work exhausted, as he identifies himself with the result of unlimited work. This is a nice conceit, but not according to the Śruti, for the words 'one's own world’ refer to the Supreme Self which is under consideration. Also, after introducing It in the words ‘one’s own world’ the text again refers to It by dropping the qualifying phrase 'one’s own’ and using the word ‘Self’ in the sentence, ‘One should meditate only upon the world of the Self.’ So there is no scope for conceiving a world connected with ritualistic work. Another reason for this is the qualification further on by words signifying pure knowledge, ‘What shall we achieve through children, we who have attained this Self, this world (result)?’ (IV. iv. 22). The words ‘this Self our world’[56] mark [Page 186] It off from the worlds attainable through a son, ritualistic work and lower knowledge (meditation). Also, ‘His world is not destroyed by any kind of work’ (Kau. III. 1), and ‘This is its highest world’ (IV. iii. 32). The passage in question ought to have the same import as those just quoted, with the qualifying words. For here also we find the specification ‘one's own world.’
Objection: You are wrong, for the sage desires objects through this. That is to say, if ‘one’s own world’ is the Supreme Self, then by meditating upon It one will become That. In that case it is not proper to mention results apart from the attainment of the Self, as in the passage, ‘From this (very) Self he projects whatever he wants’ (this text).
Reply: Not so, for the passage extols meditation on the world of the Self. The meaning is that the world of the Self alone stands for all that is desirable to him, for he has nothing else but It to ask for, since he has already attained all his objects. Just as another Śruti puts it, 'From the Self is the vital force, from the Self is hope’ (Ch. VII. xxvi. 1). Or the passage may indicate that he is identified with all, as before (I. iv. 10). If he becomes one with the Supreme Self, then only it is proper to use the word ‘Self’ in the phrase ‘from this very Self,’ meaning, ‘from one’s own world, the Self,’ which is the topic. Otherwise the text would have specified it by saying, ‘From the world of work in an undifferentiated state,’ to distinguish it from the world of the Supreme Self as well as from work in a manifested state. But since the Supreme Self has already been introduced (as ‘one’s [Page 187] own world’) and been subsequently specified (by the word ‘Self’), you cannot assume an intermediate state not mentioned in the Śruti.
It has been said that an ignorant man identifying himself with his caste, order of life, and so on, and being controlled by righteousness, thinks he has certain duties to the gods and others and is dependent on them like an animal. Now what are those duties that make him so dependent, and who are the gods and others whom he serves through his actions like an animal? To answer this the text deals with both at length:
This section is now a commentary or further elaboration on the avidya sutram by the Upanisad itself. As avidya sutram deals with karma kanda, the Upanisad talks about varna ashrama. Interesting is there is division of varnas amongst Devas themselves.
Upanisad starts with Agni devata  - in mantra 6- Upanisad had talked about Agni srshti.Here Up says Agni Himself became Brahmana among the Devas. So in swargaloka if you require a priest then Agni devata performs that role.
Hence Rg Veda - Agni Meela Purohitam Yajnasya अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य देवं रत्वीजम 
In the mantra the word Brahma va - brahma refers to Agni deva who has become brahmana of the Devas.

He cannot do anything by himself. 
So he created Deva Kshatriya - they've been listed - indro varuṇaḥ somo rudraḥ parjanyo yamo mṛityurīśāna - Indra, Varuṇa, Soma, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Death and Iśāna
Now Agni deva blessed the Deva Kshatriyas with Glory and overlordship or Power. He gave the kshatriya power to rule over himself and then Himself gives him respect in the rajasuya yaga by being seated below. Therafter Up gives a warning to the kshatriya - no doubt you have been given power and overlordship - but never ill treat a brahmana - because brahmana alone is your yoni or karanam,

Even after creating deva kshatriya he could still not do anything. naiva vyabhavat. He now created vaishyas. To perform yagnas we need materials - so we need commerce -and hence need for vaishyas. Brahmana requires grains, cow, milk, etc. for yajna and for procuring this vaishya varna was created krishi gaurakshya vanijyam in Gita. These devas are enumerated by Shankara - Those species of gods who are designated in groups. The Vaiśyas abound in groups, for they succeed in acquiring wealth mostly in combination, not singly- The Vasus, a group of eight; similarly the eleven Rudras, the twelve Ādityas, the thirteen Viśvadevas, sons of Viśvā, and the forty-nine Maruts, in seven groups.

And physical labor is needed and so deva shudra is created. Pushaa devata is the deva shudra. Normally pusha is used for surya devata. But here Upanisas reinterprets with a different meaning iyam prthvi or Bhumi devata is Pusha. Thus Prthvi devata becomes Shudra deva. Sarvam pushyati everything is nourished by prthvi alone hence the name Pushanam.

This too was not enough - because among the four the kshatriya is the niyanta or controller. But wherever there is power there is possibility of abuse misuse corruption.there needs to be a controller of kshatriya himself -  kshatrasya kshatram. 

So he created Dharma -yat shreyo rupah Dharma.
Dharma here should not be understood as mere laws of the Universe but it should be taken as Devata of all the laws of the universe. What is the svarupam of Dharma ?> Shreyas. Prosperity, auspiciousness. Wheras everyone will be powerless against Kshatriya but Dharma is baliyaan powerful and can win over Kshatriya. So the powerless can defeat anyone if they have Dharma.
What is satyam - Knowing Jnayamanam according to scripture is Satyam
What is dharma - Doing Anushtanam according to scripture is Dharma

Hence Satyam vada dharmam chara

In 1.4.15 Agni became manushya brahmana. In Kathopanishad when Nachiketas enters Yamas abode he is said to be agni himself. Therafter kshatriyas vaishyas and shudras are created and each of these is presided over by the corresponding devatas. Manushya kshatriya is presided by Varuna, Indra etc and so on

Among the four Brahmana is superior. Here Brahmana refers to gunataha brahmana (- not jati brahmana)
and Agni deva among devas is superior.
Only through Agni and performing karma can humans attain higher lokas. So everyone is dependent on agni devata. Among the manushyas brahmana jaati can get higher loka without depending on agni. With japa alone a Brahmana can attain higher lokas even if he gives up other agni karmas. japye kurya ananyava kurya
Other varnas have to depend on agni.
Brahmana can retain brahmanatvam by just Gayatri japa even if he gives up other agni karmas.
If he gives up Gayatri he loses his brahmana status.

In both worlds Brahmana is the primary srshti - agni came first out of Prajapati and he is sreshta. In manushya also agni became manushya brahmana first and then others were created


Through karma one may attain everything except moksha. Only through jnana moksha can be attained. Hence this section is important.

One who departs from this world asmat lokat prayeti -how svam lokam atma svarupa - the subject of all experiences - adrshtva - without knowing this atma or without selfknowledge
So if a person departs from this world without self knowledge
saha enam na bhunakti he is not protected from samsara..punarapi jananam..
Upanishad presents this in a beautiful manner -who protects you from samsara - atma alone protects a person from samsara. If atma has to protect why it doesnt everyone? Up puts a clause -atma protects a person when it is own viditah atma samsarat rakshati. 
Aviditah na bhunakti. Just like a punya karma that is not done does not protect a person.

If there is a ignorant person - he is certainly not protected by Atma - performs a lot of punya karma - yajna dana tapa etc will that punya itself protect the person - there is a saying dharma rakshati. So let not a person know atma, but can he get protection from hundreds of karmas. Up says even the greatest punya karma cannot protect - it only gives temporary protection, not real protection - for which jnana is required. But indirectly these punya karmas will help. These punya karmas in due course will surely get exhausted and will not give eternal result. Hence only recourse is to come to atma. Jnana phala naiva kshiyate. 

Up also says now that by mere sankalpa the jnani will get whatever he wants. Yo veda nihitam guhayam parame vyoman. Soshnute sarvan kaman saha brahmana vipashchiteti : Taittriya Up

This is arthavada. It is also true to some extent because a jnani does not have any desires for himself and if at all he has desires it is only for lokasamgrah


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