Saturday, December 26, 2015

Brhadaranyaka 1.4.4-6


Verse 1.4.4:
सा हेयमीक्षां चक्रे, कथं नु मात्मान एव जनयित्वा सम्भवति? हन्त तिरोऽसानीति; सा गौरभवत्, ऋषभ इतरः, तां समेवाभवत्, ततो गावोऽजायन्त; वडवेतराभवत्, अश्ववृष इतरः, गर्धभीतरा, गर्दभ इतरः, तां समेवाभवत्, तत एकशफमजायत; अजेतराभवत्, वस्त इतरः, अविरितरा, मेष इतरः, तां समेवाभवत्, ततोऽजावयोऽजायन्त; एवमेव यदिदं किंच मिथुनम्, आ पिपीलिकाभ्यः, तत्सर्वमसृजत ॥ ४ ॥
sā heyamīkṣāṃ cakre, kathaṃ nu mātmāna eva janayitvā sambhavati? hanta tiro'sānīti; sā gaurabhavat, ṛṣabha itaraḥ, tāṃ samevābhavat, tato gāvo'jāyanta; vaḍavetarābhavat, aśvavṛṣa itaraḥ, gardhabhītarā, gardabha itaraḥ, tāṃ samevābhavat, tata ekaśaphamajāyata; ajetarābhavat, vasta itaraḥ, aviritarā, meṣa itaraḥ, tāṃ samevābhavat, tato'jāvayo'jāyanta; evameva yadidaṃ kiṃca mithunam, ā pipīlikābhyaḥ, tatsarvamasṛjata || 4 ||
4. [Page 102] She thought, ‘How can he be united with me after producing me from himself? Well, let me hide myself.’ She became a cow, the other became a bull and was united with her; from that cows were born. The one became a mare, the other a stallion; the one became a she-ass, the other became a he-ass and was united with her; from that one-hoofed animals were born. The one became a she-goat, the other a he-goat; the one became a ewe, the other became a ram and was united with her; from that goats and sheep were born. Thus did he project every-thing that exists in pairs, down to the ants.
Remembering the prohibition made in the Smṛtis of union with one’s daughter, Śatarūpā, ‘How can hedo this vile thing—he united with me after producing me from himself? Although he has no abhorrence, well, let me hide myself by changing into another species.’ Thinking thus she became a[Page 103] cow. Impelled by the past work of the creatures that were to be produced, Śatarūpā and Manu had the same thought over and over again. Then the other became a bull and was united with her. The latter portion has been explained. From that cows were born. Similarly the one became a mare, the other a stallion; likewise the one became a she-ass, the other became a he-ass. From that union one-hoofed animals, viz. the three species, horses, mules and asses, were born. Similarly the one became a she-goat, the other became a he-goat; likewise the one became a ewe, the other became a ram and was united with her. The word ‘her’ is to be repeated so as to apply to both she-goat and ewe. From that goats and sheep were bornThus, through this process, did he project everything that exists in pairs, as male and female, down to the ants. i. e. the whole (animate) world.

Verse 1.4.5:
सोऽवेत्, अहं वाव सृष्टिरस्मि, अहं हीदं सर्वमसृक्षीति; ततः सृष्टिरभवत्; सृष्ट्यां हास्यैतस्याम् भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ५ ॥
so'vet, ahaṃ vāva sṛṣṭirasmi, ahaṃ hīdaṃ sarvamasṛkṣīti; tataḥ sṛṣṭirabhavat; sṛṣṭyāṃ hāsyaitasyām bhavati ya evaṃ veda || 5 ||
5. He knew, ‘I indeed am the creation, for I projected all this.’ Therefore he was called Creation. He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this creation of Virāj.
He, Virāj after projecting this whole world ‘I indeed am the creation, i. e. the projected world. The world I have projected not being different from me, I myself am that; it is not something over and above myself. How? For I projected all this, the whole world.’ Because Virāj designated himself by[Page 104] the word ‘creation’, therefore he was called Creation. Like Virāj, he becomes a creator of a world not different from himself, in this creation of Virāj, i. e. in this world. Who? He who, like Virāj,knows this, the world described above, in its threefold division relating to the body, the elements and the gods, as such, as identical with himself.

Verse 1.4.6:
अथेत्यभ्यमन्थत्, स मुखाच्च योनेर्हस्ताभ्यां चाग्निमसृजत; तस्मादेतदुभयमलोमकमन्तरतः, अलोमका हि योनिरन्तरतः । तद्यदिदमाःउः, अमुं यजामुं यजेत्य्, एकैकं देवम्, एतस्यैव सा विसृष्टिः, एष उ ह्येव सर्वे देवाः । अथ यत्किंचेदमार्द्रम्, तद्रेतसोऽसृजत, तदु सोमः; एतावद्वा इदं, सर्वम् अन्नं चैवान्नादश्च; सोम एवान्नम्, अग्निरन्नादः; सैषा ब्रह्मणोऽतिसृष्टिर्यच्छ्रेयसो देवानसृजत, अथ यन्मर्त्यः सन्नमृतानसृजत तस्मादतिसृष्तिः; अतिसृष्ट्यं हास्यैतस्यां भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ६ ॥
athetyabhyamanthat, sa mukhācca yonerhastābhyāṃ cāgnimasṛjata; tasmādetadubhayamalomakamantarataḥ, alomakā hi yonirantarataḥ | tadyadidamāḥuḥ, amuṃ yajāmuṃ yajety, ekaikaṃ devam, etasyaiva sā visṛṣṭiḥ, eṣa u hyeva sarve devāḥ | atha yatkiṃcedamārdram, tadretaso'sṛjata, tadu somaḥ; etāvadvā idaṃ, sarvam annaṃ caivānnādaśca; soma evānnam, agnirannādaḥ; saiṣā brahmaṇo'tisṛṣṭiryacchreyaso devānasṛjata, atha yanmartyaḥ sannamṛtānasṛjata tasmādatisṛṣṭiḥ; atisṛṣṭyaṃ hāsyaitasyāṃ bhavati ya evaṃ veda || 6 ||
6. Then he rubbed back and forth thus, and produced fire from its source, the mouth and the hands. Therefore both these are without hair at the inside. When they t talk of particular gods, saying, ‘Sacrifice to him,’ ‘Sacrifice to the other one,’ (they are wrong, since) these are all his projection, for he is all the gods. Now all this that is liquid, he produced from the seed. That is Soma. This universe is indeed this much—food and the eater of food. Soma is food, and fire the eater of food. This is the super-creation of Virāj that he projected the gods, who are even superior to him. Because he, although mortal himself, projected the immortals, therefore this is a super-creation. [Page 105] He who knows this as such becomes (a creator) in this super-creation of Virāj.
Then, having thus projected this world consisting of pairs, he, Virāj, desiring to project the gods controlling the Brāhmaṇa and other castes, first rubbed back and forth thus. The Words ‘then’ and ‘thus’ show the process by a gesture. Putting his hands into his mouth he went on rubbing back and forth. Having rubbed the mouth with his hands, he produced fire, the benefactor of the Brāhmaṇa caste, from its source, the mouth and the hands. Because the mouth and the hands are the source of fire, which burns, therefore both these are without hair. Is it all over? No, only at the inside. Similarly the Brāhmaṇa also was born from the mouth of Virāj. Because both have sprung from the same source, the Brāhmaṇa is favoured by fire, as a younger brother is by his elder brother. Therefore it is wellknown from the Śrutis and Smṛtis that the Brāhmaṇas have fire as their deity, and their strength lies in their mouth. Similarly from his arms, which are the abode of strength, he manifested Indra and other gods who control the Kṣatriya caste, as well as that caste itself. Therefore we know from the Śrutis and Smṛtis that the Kṣatriyas and physical strength are presided over by Indra. Similarly from his thighs, which are the source of effort, he manifested the Vasus and other gods who control [Page 106]the Vaiśyas, as well as that caste itself. Therefore the Vaiśyas are devoted to agriculture and other such pursuits, and have the Vasus etc. as their deities. Similarly from his feet he manifested Pūṣan, the deity of the earth, and the Śūdras, who have the capacity to serve—as we know from the Śrutis and Smṛtis. The manifestation of the deities of the Kṣatriya etc. has not been described here; it will be described later on.[3] But the text concludes as if they were described, in order to deal with creation as a whole. The real aim of the text is (not to describe creation, but) to indicate that all the gods are but Virāj, as stated here, for manifested objects are not different from the mani-festor, and the gods have been manifested by Virāj.
Now, this being the import of the section, the views of some ignorant people are being put forward as a eulogy on that. The criticism of one serves as a tribute to another. When, in discussing ceremonials, the priests, who know only mechanical rites, talk of particular gods, saying at the time of performing a sacrifice, ‘Sacrifice to him, viz. Fire,’ ‘Sacrifice to the other one, viz. Indra,’ and so on, thinking, on account of differences regarding name, type of hymns recited or sung, function, and the like, that they are separate gods, it should not be understood that way, because these different gods are all his projection, manifestation of Virāj, for he, Virāj,[4] the (cosmic) vital force, is all the gods.
Here there is a difference of opinion. Some say [Page 107] that Hiraṇyagarbha is the Supreme Self, others that he is the transmigrating individual self. The first group says: He must be the Supreme Self, for the Śruti says so, as for instance in the passage, ‘They call It Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa and Fire’ (Ṛ. I. clxiv. 46), and also in, ‘It is Hiraṇyagarbha, It is Indra, It is Virāj and all these gods’ (Ai. V. 3). And the Smṛti too, ‘Some call It Fire, others Manu and Virāj' (M. XII. 123), and ‘That (Supreme Self) which is beyond the organs, imperceptible, subtle, undifferentiated, eternal, consisting of all beings, and unthinkable, manifested Itself’ (M. I. 7). Or, according to the second group: He must be the individual self, for the Śruti says, ‘He burnt all evils’ (I. iv. 1). There can be no question of the burning of evils in the case of the Supreme Self. The Śruti also mentions his having fear and dissatisfaction, and also, ‘That he, although mortal himself, projected the immortals’ (this text), and ‘Behold Hiraṇyagarbha as he is being born’ (Śv. IV. 12; Mn. X. 3). Further, the Smṛti treating of the results of rites says, ‘Sages are of opinion that the attainment of oneness with Virāj, the world-projectors (Manu and others), Yama (the god of justice), Hiraṇyagarbha and the Undifferentiated is the highest result produced by Sattva or pure materials (rites coupled with meditation)’ (M. XII. 50).
Should it be urged that such contradictory statements being inadmissible, the scriptures lose their authority, the answer is: Not so, for they can be harmonised on the ground that different conceptions are possible. That is to say, through his relation to [Page 108] particular limiting adjuncts he can be conceived of as different That the transmigratory character of Hiraṇyagarbha is not real, but due to limiting adjuncts, is known from such Śrthi texts as the following: ‘Sitting, It roams far, and lying, It goes everywhere. Who else but me can know that effulgent entity which is endowed with joy and its absence as well?’ (Ka. II. 21). Essentially he is but the Supreme Self. So Hiraṇyagarbha is one as well as many. The same is the case with all beings, as the Śruti says, ‘Thou art That’ (Ch. V. viii. 7 etc.). But Hiraṇyagarbha, possessing limiting adjuncts of extraordinary purity, is described by the Śrutis and Śmṛtis mostly as the Supreme Self, and seldom as the transmigratory self. While ordinary individuals, owing to an excess of impurity in their limiting adjuncts, are mostly spoken of as the transmigratory self. But when divested of all limiting adjuncts, everyone is spoken of by the Śrutis and Smṛtis as the Supreme Self.
The rationalists, however, who discard the authority of Revelation and rely on mere argument, say all sorts of conflicting things such as that the self exists or does not exist, that it is the agent or is not the agent, and mystify the meaning of the scriptures. This makes it extremely difficult to find out their real import. But those who only follow the scriptures and have overcome their pride find the meaning of the scriptures regarding the gods etc. as definite as objects of perception.
Now the Śruti wishes to tell of one and the same god, Virāj, being differentiated as food and so forth.[Page 109] Fire, which is the eater of food, has already been described. Now Soma, the food, is being described: Now all this that is liquid in the world, he produced from his seed, for the śruti says, ‘From the seed water’ (Ai. I. 4), and Soma is liquid. Therefore whatever liquid was produced out of Virāj’s seed is Soma. This universe is indeed this much, and no more. What is it? Food, i.e. Soma, which being liquid is appeasing, and the eater of food, i.e. fire, ‘because it is hot and dry. Now follows a decision on the point: Soma is food, i.e. whatever is eaten is Soma. (And fire the eater of food)—whoever eats is fire. This decision is based on sense. Sometimes fire too is offered as an oblation, when it falls into the category of Soma (food). And when a sacrifice is made to Soma, it too becomes fire, being the eater. One who thus regards the universe consisting of fire and Soma as oneself is not touched by evil, and becomes Virāj. This is the super-creation of Virāj, i.e. one that is even superior to him. What is it?That he projected the gods, who are even superīor to him. This is why this manifestation of the gods is called a super-creation. How is this creation even superior to him? This is being explained: Because he, although mortal himself, projected the immortals, the gods, by burning all his evils with the fire of meditation and rites, therefore this is a super-creation, i.e. the result of superior knowledge (and rites). Hence he who knows this super-creation of Virāj. which is identical with him (i.e. identifies himself with Virāj, who projected the gods), becomes like him in this super-creation of Virāj, i.e. becomes a creator like Virāj himself.
Now we move to pashu srshti
The creation of animal kingdom is mentioned, in the form of a story as above

Then we come to deva srshti and anna srshti
First agni devata is created. Agni is the devata of the mouth vacho devata agni Agni is brought out by churning
HG used his hand for churning and brought out agni from his mouth. If you look at the whole body there is hair everywhere but inside the mouth and on the palm there is no hair and this is the logic presented by the Up.
Next was Soma out of the retas or creative energy of HG
And therafter all other devas were born - not been specified in the Up

Agni alone becomes our digestive fire vaisvanara agni and hence agni devata is annada - He who consumes annam
Soma devata is what the nourishing portion of food consists of. As in Gita - SomobhUtvA rasatmaka, and so Soma is annam and agni is anndaha.

Of all the srshtis the greatest is deva srshti and hence it is called atisrshti
whosoever does upasana on this will also

With this the HG glory and samsara part is also over and sadhya prapancha topic is over. Now we have covered sadhana and sadhya - means and ends.


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