Friday, December 18, 2015

Aitareya Upanishad 3.1

Chapter 3.1

OM ko.ayamAtmeti vayamupAsmahe kataraH sa AtmA . yena vA pashyati yena

vA shRiNoti yena vA ga.ndhAnAjighrati yena vA vAcha.n vyAkaroti yena
vA svAdu chAsvAdu cha vijAnAti .. 1..

Who is He upon whom we meditate thinking: "This is the Self"? Which one is the Self? Is it He by whom one sees form, by whom one hears sound and by whom one tastes the sweet and the unsweet?

yadetaddhRidayaM manashchaitat.h . sa.njnAnamAjnAna.n vijnAnaM
praj~nAnaM medhA
dRiShTidhRi.rtimatirmanIShA jUtiH smRitiH sa.nkalpaH kraturasuH kAmo
vasha iti .
sarvANyevaitAni prajnAnasya nAmadheyAni bhava.nti .. 2..

Is it the heart (intellect) and the mind? It is consciousness, lordship, knowledge, wisdom, retentive power of mind, sense knowledge, steadfastness, though, thoughtfulness, sorrow, memory, concepts, purpose, life, desire, longing: all these are but various names of Consciousness (Prajnanam).

In both Ch 1 and Ch 2 Upanishad concluded with self knowledge

In Ch 1 a rare jiva makes enquiry about creation and onself and comes to know aham brahmasmi sa jAto bhUtAnyabhivyaikhyat.h kimihAnya.n vAvadiShaditi .sa etameva
puruShaM brahma tatamamapashyat.h . idamadarshanamitI .. 13.. 

In Ch 2 vamadeva gets self realization in the womb taduktamRiShiNA garbhe nu sannanveShAmavedamaha.n devAnA.n janimAni
vishvA shataM mA pura AyasIrarakShannadhaH shyeno javasA niradIyamiti
. garbha evaitachChayAno vAmadeva evamuvAcha .. 5.. 

But it does not say how to make the enquiry. The 3rd ch is the most important chapter in which method of enquiry is presented. The chapter talks about some seekers who approached a Guru with a desire to know the self.

Atma iti vayam upasmahe. We talk about the self. We constantly refer upasmahe to "I" my self and this self is called atma. The word self is repeated used by all of us as "I am" Who is this self? Who am I?
We have heard about 2 selves - one is paramatma entering every body through the top of the head and is in the body as sakshi chaitanyam - should this be taken as the real atma.
Or should we take the prana shakti which is also in the body as the atma because in the presence of the prana alone we are all alive and functioning and are able to say "I am" - the moment the prana quits the body I am not there to say I am. And we do talk about such a travelling jivaatma in karmakanda = when we do tarpana shraadha etc we offer to this travelling jivatma with pranashakti which enters and leaves the physical body.

Of these 2 kataraha sa atma - chidabhasa rupa and chid rupa atma - bimba rupa and pratibimba rupa atma - which one is the real one? And then take various organs and ask the question. Can I claim the eye as the atma? When the eyes see or ears hear we always say I see and I hear. And so on for speech taste ..Hence with each sense organ they ask is this organ the I?
and further .. mind (mind is happy or sad) & hrdayam here means intellect etc

The response is not spelt out in the Upanishad - so we have to fill in the blanks... the answer they arrived at was that all of these organs are instruments we use only in jagrat awastha and absent in sushupti and are mere instruments of interaction - none of them can be "I" who am behind all of them
5 features are common to all of them viz., drisyatvam (can be objectified), bhautikatvam (materiality), sagunatvam (having attributes), savikaratvam (changing nature) and agama-payitvam (subject to arrival and departure).

Then the question is if I am not all this - who am I? Once I have negated all the objects of experience including thoughts as in sushupti only thing that remains is blankness. So the question is am i emptiness. To which Guru asks how will you know you are blankness. Answer is I experience blankness and so I am able to know blankness. Without a witness you cannot talk about blankness and this witness cannot be inert it has to be consciousness and aitareya terms it chaitanyam and thus chaitanyam chit consciousness is the real self
Now the question is how can be recognize that consciousness for which the Guru gives a method or clue. This is very important and is very similair to pratibodha viditam from Kena upanishad -that idea is expanded here
This consciousness principle alone becomes varieties of experiences when associated with different thoughts.

When I look at an object, like a pot, mind and sense organs contact the object pot and I register the presence of the object pot, in the mind the thought of that object flower as a flower shaped thought or flower akara vrtti ooccurs.

So consciousness + pot thought = pot experience
consciousness + tree thought = tree experience
consciousness + anger = anger experience

When I say I have anger experience - I am conscious of anger thought

Once consciousness alone appears as several experiences
If I hold onto one thought that experience alone is there
When that thought changes experience also changes

Thoughts change
Experiences change

One consciousness

Thought is the costume of consciousness

One prajnanam is appearing as variety of experience

How then to arrive at prajnanam?

Consciousness + thought = experience
Consciousness = experience - thought

So changing experiences minus changing thoughts = changeless consciousness

What I am conscious of vaires
That I am conscious never varies

Even when objects disappear as in sushupti I am conscious of the blankness also
That prajnanam consciousness is the real I the Atman

The upanisad lists the different thought

samjnanam - self awareness. Self awareness requires which thought? "I" thought

ajnanam - extrasensory perception
vijnanam - vishesha or specific knowledge - knowledge of different objects like pot flower etc
prajnanam - pratibha or capacity to instantly decide;
medha - memorty
drshti - sensory perception
dhrtih - will power or perseverance
matih - reflection, thinking over a particular idea repeatedly, mananam
manishah - manasa svatantryam or free will
jutih - sorrow - also a costume of consciousness, itself ananda svarupa atma (!)
smrtih - remembrance
sankalpah - visualization, dreaming
kratuh - nischayah decision
asuh - living, or life function, like breathing, pranah nadi vrttih
kaamah - desire
vashah - desire or attraction between male and female

All these thoughts which happen in the mind all the time and constantly change - changeless light of consciousness is present all the time

That light of consciousness is the real self called the atma. Tvam pada lakshartha. jivatma.

Then upanishad says this jivatma the prajnanam the consciousess, different from the body mind sense complex,

what is the nature of this atma? Atma is different from any of the five koshas - then what is the nature of prajnanam. Even mind and intellect are both objects and instruments - antahkaranam - and hence neither is me, the self. The prajnanam cannot also be objectified because I cannot look at myself. Subject cannot be objectified. I know i am sakshi but i do not know the nature of this sakshi - ands the upanishad reveals this in the mahavakya - prajnanam brahma - consciousness is Brahman. What is that Brahman we know from Taitttriya - yato va imani bhutani jayante . yena jatani jivanti . yatprayantyabhisa.nvishanti . tadvijijnasasva . tad.h brahmeti . So Brahman is jagat karanam- and as karanam has 4 features -  eka sara nitya satyam - Karanam alone exists independently.

eSha brahmaiSha indra eSha prajApatirete sarve devA imAni cha
pa~nchamahAbhUtAni pRithivI vAyurAkAsha Apo
jyotI.nShItyetAnImAni cha kShudramishrANIva .
bIjAnItarANi chetarANi chANDajAni cha jArujAni cha svedajAni chodbhijjAni
chAshvA gAvaH puruShA hastino yatki~nchedaM prANi ja~Ngama.n cha patatri
cha yachcha sthAvaram 
sarvam tatprajnAnetraM praj~nAne pratiShThitaM
prajnAnetro lokaH praj~nA pratiShThA prajnAnaM brahma .. 3..

He is Brahma, He is Indra, He is Prajapati; He is all these gods; He is the five great

elements—earth, air, akasa, water, light; He is all these small creatures and the
others which are mixed; He is the origin—those born of an egg, of a womb, of sweat
and of a sprout; He is horses, cows, human beings, elephants—whatever breathes
here, whether moving on legs or flying in the air or unmoving. All this is guided by
Consciousness, is supported by Consciousness. The basis of the universe is
Consciousness. Consciousness is Brahman (Prajnanam Brahma). 

Brahma here is Hiranyagarbha; Prajapati is Virat samashti sthula shareera sahita chaitanyam,
Physical bodies are classified into 4 - those born of egg (birds); of womb of the mother (mammals); born of moisture (like fungus & microbes); born of earth (plants, trees).. so from esha brahma ... sthavaram.. the entire cosmos has been covered.

Sarvam tat prajnanetram All this is a product of consciousness. that which comes to existence because of prajna is netram. It is born out of prajna, exists because of prajna, and finally resolves into prajna. That prajnanam is I. An example is dream.
I enter the dream world, experience dream world and provide reality to the dream also.
For the dreamer dream is not dream in dream and is real like waking. That seemingly dream world has been created by me alone
I myself have got a Maya shakti with which i create the jagrat prapancha also - create, sustain and resolve the Universe. I give it reality also. Dream is mithya
Mithya does not have existence does not origination it has got appearance and at the time of appearance it has called E T U : experiencable, transactable, and it is useful - ETU does not prove reality. Just like svapna, the jagrat prapancha is also mithya

With prajnanm brahma the main teaching is over.
Question is what do i get out of it?

sa etena prAjnenA.a.atmanA.asmAllokAdutkramyAmuShminsvarge loke sarvAn.h
kAmAnAptvA.amRitaH samabhavat.h samabhavat.h .. 4..

He, having realized oneness with Pure Consciousness, soared from this world and
having obtained all desires in yonder heavenly world, became immortal-yea, became

A jnani abiding as sakshi chaitanyam - constantly remembering this fact "aham brahmasmi" - atmanishta brahmanishta.. how to make this brahmanishta stronger? brahma bhava prabalikaranam (Viveachudamani) more shravanam mananam and nidhidhysanam it makes my body identification (ahankara) durbali karanam - and identification with family (mamakara - attachment, & obsession) and consequent powerful raga dvesha. These are the 4 enemies dushta chatushtayam that disturb the mind all the time. These 4 together give rise to jiva bhava
A jnani comes out of jiva bhava and comes to atma bhava

Coming out of samsara, at that time, he fulfills all his desires - by mere knowledge. As long as "I" refers to an individual that individual can never ever have unfulfilled desires. Jnani discards the individuality and claims brahmabhava - everything is within One Brahman, just as all dream objects are in wakers mind only. Only in the dream do we feel there is a distance between desirer and desired. Similarly all the desired objects are in Me, as Self. This is jivanmukti a life of fulfilment a life without complaint. Complaint comes only when we want things to happen as we want. This person knows anatma behavior is not going to be in keeping with my norms it will have its own behavior based on laws of karma. Expectations are either not there or they are in the form of nonbinding expectations. As long as prarabdha continues body continues and when prarabdha is exhausted the body falls and jnani merges into the totality like a river merging into the Ocean.

YathA nadyah syandamAnAh samudre astam gacchanti nAmarupe vihAya TathA vidwAn nAmarupAt vimuktah parAtparam purusam upeiti divyam  As rivers eventually merge themselves in the ocean losing their names and forms so does the enlightened soul merge in the end with the paramatma (Mundaka Up) Sthula shareera merges into sthula prapancha or Virat Sukshma shareeram merges into sukshma prapancha or HIranyagarbha and karana shareeram merges into karana prapancham or Antaryami or Ishwara and "enclosed" consciousness merges into allpervading consciousness like when a pot when broken the pot space merges into total space - the merger does not involve any travel or transformation. This is videha mukti. This is the benefit of knowledge. hence there is neither fear of death or of rebirth.

To indicate the end the Upanishad repeats the expression amrtah samabhavat,


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