Tuesday, August 4, 2015

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad : Purnamadah Purnamidam




Shantipaatha
Every upanishad begins with a shantipaatha to ward off obstacles
Shukla Yajur Veda shantipatha is purnamidam

Om purnamadam purnamidam purnad purnamudhachyate
Purnyasya purnamadaya purnamevavishyate
Om shanti shanti shantih

This is a unique shantipatha where vedantic teaching itself is summarized
Other shantipathas are namaskarah - prayer to the Almighty for health strength and freedom from obstacles to my study
This shantipaatha is not a prayer but a statement of fact - brahma satyam

Purnam : infinite, full, all pervading (vyapi)
Adah : tat padarthaa, That, Ishwara, karanam
Idam : tvam padartha, This, Jiva, karya

Words can have different types of meanings - we can take two in this context primary/direct/vakyartha;  and implied/indirect/lakshyartha

Mimamsa is the science of analysis of Vedas
According to mimamsa we always try to apply primary meaning & if it doesn't fit we take implied meaning

Vakyartha bhade lakshyartha is the rule

Here if we take primary meaning Ishwara is infinite is acceptable but individual Jiva who is the student cannot be infinite & hence primary meaning has to be discarded
Implied meaning is taken by bhagatyaga lakshanam - Jiva svarupatah lakshyadrshtyaa purnah & the same way Ishwara api svarupatah purnah. Both Jiva & Ishwara by their essential nature are infinite

But we cannot have 2 infinite - which means Jiva & Ishwara are One Infinite
Thus purnamadah purnamidam is a mahavakya
Tatpada tvampada lakshyarthayoho aikyam uktam - identity of Jiva & Ishwara is revealed

Purnad purnam udachyate
Purnad - from Ishwara the whole
Purnam udachyate - the whole Jiva is born

Here too vakyartha is absurd. Purnam or infinite which by definition means transcending time cannot be "born" & also purnam born out of purnam it means there are 2 purnams which is not possible
So we take lakshyartha
Sopadhika drshtya from the standpoint of upadhi / shareeram the purna Jiva is born out of Ishwara.
Atmadrshtya nirupadhikadrshtya svarupadrshtya both are One

We use the example "pot space is born" "ghatakasha jayate"

Space is never born - but we say pot space is born only when we look at space from the standpoint of the pot. From the standpoint of space pot space is never born.

Purnasya purnam adaya purnam Eva avashishyate

Now the question arises both Jiva & Ishwara are innately whole
And we say from upadhi standpoint Jiva is born of Ishwara
Which means there is 2 things - shareeram anatma & shareeri atma

No - says the upanishad - anatma is unreal & hence is Mithyaa

But here in the shantipatha it doesn't directly I say anatma is unreal
Adaya - remove
When you remove shareeri part of Jiva - shareeram does not remain (Jiva is atma and anatma & so mathematically minus atma anatma should remain but that is not so is what is said here)
Thus we derive that shareeram is dependent on shareeri & hence shareeram is Mithyaa

So purnam eva avashishyate - purnam alone remains.


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