Friday, August 28, 2009
Katha Upanishad Shankara bhashya: Valli 4 Mantra 6
Intro to Mantra 6
yat prthyagatma ishwara bhavena nirdhistaha sa sarvatmeti yetad darshayati
As talks about the further development. In the previous mantra it was said jivatma and paramatma are one and the same - one nirguna atma alone is appearing as Ishwara with samashti namarupa and as jiva with vyashti namarupa. Nirguna atma alone is saguna jiva and saguna Ishwara ... not only that nirguna atma is in the form of HIranyagarbha and later in the form of Virat as well. All the three saguna forms are noting but appearances of nirguna atma. Sthoola namarupa - Virat, Sukshma namarupa - HG, Karana namarupa - Ishwara. In a nutshell this understanding is called sarvatma bhava. Why so called? Sarvam atma is the bhavana. THere is nothing other than Atma.
yaha prthyagatma ishwara bhavena nirdishtaha - this jiva who was presented as the paramatma- that atma alone is sarvatma - n the form of everything iti etat this message darshyati is presented in the following mantra
Yah purvam tapato jatam adhyah purvam ajayate
guhayam pravishya tishtantam bhutebhir vyapashyata etadvaitat
The whole mantra is descrining HG - 1st - purvam tapatah jaatah HG is born first. Hence the title prathamajah - and how born? out of tapas of Ishwara. Ishwara is not mentioned but we supply, 2nd definition of HG - adhyaha purvam ajayatah - born even before the panchabhutas - water represents all the panchabhutas. 3rd - bhutebhih sah guhaam pravishya tishtanti - HG resides in every living being in the heart of every being guha means heart. Samashti HG is present in every individual as taijasa. surrounded by the body and the sense organs - karyakaranasanghatai ityarthah. Whole mantra is description of HG. Suppose a person recognizes this HG...the mantra is incomplete - we complete the mantra by saying sah Brahma pashyati whoever sees HG is seeing Brahman alone. Indirect message given is - knower of HG is knower of Brahman means Brahman alone is in the form of HG> this is the message - and etad vaitat - and this Brahman alone is the one you wanted to know about.
yah mumukshu purvam prathamam tapato jnanadi lakshanat Brahmanah ityetat jatam utpannam hiranyagarbham
Suppose a mumukshu a seeker (knows HG) - purvam = prathamam, tapata - jnanadi lakshana - Ishwara's tapas - what is the tapas of Ishwara? not standing on one leg, etc!...mere sankalpa - jnanamayam tapah..expression comes in the Mundaka Up..yasya jnanamayam tapah..sankalpah - mere will of Bhagwan. Where does the sankalpa take place - in the human it takes place in the mind. For Bhagwan sankalpa is in Maya. Ishwara sankalpa is in the form of Mayavrtti. (Jiva sankalpa is in the form of manovrtti) Who is doing that tapas?>Brahmanah - here it means Ishwaraysa. ityetat - this is the meaning. jatam - is equal to utpannam is born hiranyagarbham. HG is born out of the sankalpa of Ishwara
kimapekshya purvam ityahah adhyapurvam apsatebhyah panchabhutebhyah na kevalabhyah apraayah ajaayatah utpannah
HG is born before - it is said. Question comes - before what? Kim apekshya? From the standpoint of what do we say that HG is before. adhyah purvam - before the waters. AS comments apsatebhyah panchabhutebhyah - water represents all the pancha bhutas including waters. Na kevalabhyah aabhyah - dont take only the waters merely but also include all elements iti abhipraayah this is the intention of the ajaayatah is in the mulam and means utpannah - was born - before all the panchabhutas
yastam prathamajam devadi shareeran utpadya sarvi prani guham hrdayakasham pravishya tishtantam shabdadin upalabhamanam bhutebhutebhau karyakaranalakshana sah tisthantam yah vyapashya pashyati ityetat.
that firstborn HG - most active employee of Ishwara - has been given the contract to create - Mundaka - Brahma..prathamaja .. vishwasya karta. Devashareerani utpadya...He creates beginning with Virat - and from there all the lokas, all the bodies of the Devas, etc He is samashti he created all the vyashti jivas. HG Himself as samashti chidabhasa enters the vyashti antahkarana as it were in the form of vyashti chidabhasa. sarva prani guhaam hrdayaakasham pravishya tishtantam. Here guha in the mulam is understood as hrdaya akasham. Shastra locates the mind in the hrdaya akasha - not in the brain. Within the physical heart there is an empty space and mind resides there during sushupti - during dream the mind travels through the naadis, and during awake it pervades all the physical body. Hrdayam is where the mind rests during sushupti. Also enters is not to be taken literally but only figuratively in the sense of "becomes available". HG in the individual is known as taijasa. Whats the job of taijasa? He experiences all the sense objects - upalabhamanam shabdadin - how does taijasa reside? bhutebhi surrounded by all the organs - karyakaranalakshanaibhi - in the form of the physical and subtle bodies consisting of all the organs sah tishtantam. Suppose a person knows such a HG
Yaha evam pashyati sah etat eva pashyati yat tat prakrtam Brahma.
yah evam pashyati - suppose a person knows HG in this manner as given in these three descriptions, sah etat eva pashyati - this is added to complete the sentence - he knows Brahman. yat tat Brahman- which is the topic under discussion.
So final message of the mantra is - Brahman is in the form of HG also.
Sarvatma bhava is being talked about in this mantra. One Atma alone appears as jivA, jagat, and Ishwara also. AtmA with tamas pradhana Maya is jagat, with rajas pradhana maya is jivA, with sattva pradhana Maya is Ishwara. These three Gunas alone "make" the nirguna Atma into jiva jagat and Ishwara. One Atma alone appears as the antaryami Ishwara, and as Hiranyagarbha Ishwara and also as Vishwarupa or Virat Ishwara. Of these three antaryami Ishwara is talked about in mantra 5, HG Ishwara is talked about in mantras 6 and 7, and Virat Ishwara is talked in Mantra 8. One Turiyam alone appears as triteeya padah - called antaryami Ishwara - and dwiteeya padah which is hiranyagarbha Ishwara, and prathamah padah as vaishvanaro Ishwara (in the terminlogy empployed by the Mandukya)
Sarvatma bhava means Turiyam alone appears as the three padas of the Universe - and that turiyam aham asmi.
yah adhyah purvam ajayata (sah hiranyagarbha bhavati). purvam tapatah jatam guham pravishya bhutebhih saha tishtantam (hiranyagarbham)yaha vyapashyata (sah Brahma pashyati) etad vai tat.
[AS takes the meaning of the word yaha as mumukshu. Amaradasa takes the 1st word yaha connecting with Hiranyagarbha. The meaning of the latter has been taken here for the anvyaha for the purpose of convenience.]