Saturday, July 4, 2009

Kathopanioshad; Shankara Bhashya. Valli 4. Mantra 3

yat vijananat na kincit anyat prarthayante brahmanaha katham tad adhigamaiti uchyate.

AS intro the next mantra. With previous sloka the sadhana portion is over - main sadhana being avoidance of extrovertedness. Herafter actual atmajnana topic is going to come - all the following atma lakshana slokas are v.v.important.
yat vijananat - by knowing that - the atma - kincit anyat - the wise people, the Brahmanas, do not seek prarthayante, anything else. They dont seek the atma also as they have already discovered it as themselves. tad adigama? how should or in what manner should one know that atma. iti uchyate - such an idea is now being discussed.
yena rupam rasa gandham shabdan sparsha evedaiva vijanati kim atra parishishyate etadvaitat


Atma has to be recognized as the consciousness principle inherent in the body. Atma is that consciosness principle because of which one is aware of shada sparsa rupa rasa gandha. From this Up conveys that hypothetically if that principle were to be absent the body mind complex will be a inert bindle like a statue. If this inert bundle is sensing the surroundings it is only because of consciousness. Just like a fan rotates only because of the invisible electricity. This alone is tat - that atma tatvam which you wanted to know O Naciketa.

yena vijnanena svabhena atmana rupam rasam gandham shabdansparshancha maithuna maithuna nimittaan sukha pratyayaan bijanati vispashtam janati sarvolokah

The 1st word yena and yetena must be joined together. yetena means aparoksha chaitanya atma. What kind of atma? which is intimately available always as the sentiency or consciousness. yena yetena..vijanan svabhavena atmana - because of the atma which si the nature of consciousness. here vijnana means consciousness. vijnanam can also refer to knowledge - (like in BG jnana-vijnana yoga) Vijnana as knowledge is not universally available - vijnanam as consciousness is universally available. sarvah lokah janati - every living being vijanati vispashtam clearly experiences. Because of atma chaitanyam alone every living being is clearly experiencing rupam rasam etc all the 5 sensory stimuli as well as maithunam the pleasures and pains borne out of contact with sense organs maithuna nimitta sukha pratyayan - experiences of pleasrue and pain borne out of such ontact with the sense objects. (samsparsha bhogah in BG) Each experience maithunam is a contact or intercourse. Consciousness is experienced all the time - that alone is the Atma. The Atma whose very nature is self-evdient consciousness.

nanu naivam prasiddhhi lokasya atmana dehadi vilakshanena aham vijanaamiti dehaadi sanghadoham vijanamiti tu sarvolokovagacchati

Here Up is defning atma as the consciousness principle because of which every living being is experiencing the world - meaning the Up is assuming that there is an independent principle consciousness independent and other than the bodymind complex. This is meaningful only if the world knows that there is a consicousness separate from the body. When we dont have the knowledge that there is a separate consciousness how can you introduce it
nanu - to object - lokasya prasiddhi nasti there is no knowledge for the world for humanity dehadi vilakshanena atmana that there is a atma a consciousness principle different from the body and because of it alone i am experiencing aham bijanami the world. No one is aware of this or such a principle - only if people know of this can you say such a atma is brahman. On the other hand the general conception of the world is aham dehadi sanghata I am the sentient individual consisting of the bodymindcomplex - sarva lokah - avagacchati entire humanity understands in this manner only. this is the objection of the pp.
na tvevam dehadisanghatasyapi shabdadi svarupatvavisheshatvat vijneyatva visheshaacha na yuktam vijnakrtvam
The Up is assuming the student is capable of some independent thinking. Any person can easily come to the conclusion that the bodymind complex by itself can only be jadam or achetanam.
drshyatvam object of experienced bhautikatvam made of pancha bhutas sagunatvam endowed with attributes savikaratvam subject to change aagamapahitvam appear together in jagrat and disappear together in sushupti are the five similar aspects of body and world. So with these 5 hetu we can easily conclude that like the world the body is also jadam. If this body is experiencing the world the sentiency must have come from some other principle adrshyam. On the other hand if the body is sentient by itself why cant the wall or statue also be sentient? That there is such a principle a thinking student will conclude - kene ishitam....?what is that mysterious principle which converts the inert bundle into a sentient one?
tat evam what you say is not correct Up is addresing a intelligent student dehadisanhatasya api even though a complex is also endowed with attributes and is exactly the same as the drshyaprapancha avishesham - it is not different from the wall, a desk, a pot. Both are jadam - therfore vijna na yuktam cannot have knowerhood or sentiency. There must be a mysterious or extraenous principle lending sentiency called deva in Kena Up
yadihi dehadi sanghathah rupadyatmakaha san rupadi vijaaneyat bahyapi rupadayaha anyonyam svam svam rupancha vijaniyuhu
Suppose yadihi as pp contends the body dehadisanghatah is sentient by itself, hypothetically, and therefor knows itself as I am body and knows others and there is no Atma. Then - like this body shareeravat with sagunatvam etc - a statue pratima also must be capable of knowing itself svayam prakasha. Suppose this bhautika shareeram knows the other objects around then bahyaha api those external objects rupadayaha like chair etc will also know I am chair svam svam vijanayhu will know i am chair i am table etc. anyonyoncha - wil know each other also.
na chaitad asti tasmad dehadi lakshanams cha rupadin etenaiva rupadin etenaiva dehadi vyatirikte naiva vijnana svabhavenatmanah vijanati lokah yatha yena lokodahati sogniriti tatvat
na cha etad asti - we dont see any material objects being sentient by itself. tasmad therefore your vada cannot be accepted. There must be a nonmaterial entity in the Creation. Scientist are refusing to accept this fundemental principle. They relate consciousness as part property or product of matter. Consciousness is an independent entity. dehadi lakshanams cha rupadin etenaiva vijanati with the help of the conscioiusness principle the bodymind complex becomes an object of knowledge. body/mind never knows itself. Because of this transcendental consciousness dehadivyatiriktena which is different from the body/mind complex which is of the nature of consciousness itself vijnana svabhavena atmana the world is able to objectify the body/mind complex dehadi lakshanancha vijanati and their material properties rupadi. Consciousness principle is experienced by people at all times - you dont need a special state a special avastha a special samadhi to experience the consciousness. Atma anubhava we have always all the time. That ever experienced atma An example is given - imagine a red hot iron ball loha - when you touch the ball it will burn the hand - dahati and we say the iron burnt the hand but with a little of thought we conclude that iron does not have heat of its own. Hence there must be some other principle pervading the iron ball because of which the iron is able to burn other things. That entity which is other than the iron is called agnih fire. In the case of the iron you can see the agni because it is red, but say in the case of hot water that heat principle is invisible. Similarly the body is sentient because of the atma.
atmanovijneyamkim atrasminloke parishishyate na kincit parishishytae sarvameva atmanavijenyam yasyatmano vijneyam na kincit parishishyate sa atma sarvajnaha etadvaitat.
kim atra parishishyate? What remains in the world which is outside the awarenness of the Atma? atra = asmin loke = this vyavaharica prapancha. kim parishishyate? what remains outside the awareness of Atma. No object exists outside awareness. The moment you say something exists outside awareness as even you say it it has fallen within awareness. If it falls outside awareness you cannot talk about its existence and so we can v v boldy say that whatever exists outside awareness is NONexistent. Suppose a person says there are so many objects that I am not aware of - those obects are not falling within the range of the mind and the sense organs - no object can be outside awareness. If there is a dance program in the heavens it is falling within awareness of Indra - everything is within the awareness of someone. What never comes in someones awareness at anytime is nonexistence. na kinchit parishishyati - nothing exists outside of awareness. Awareness and consciousness are used synonmously in Vedanta. sarvam eva tu -Everything in the creation is revealed by Atma. yasya atmanaha avijneyam na kincit parishishyate - nothing remains in the world which is not revealed by Atma. tameva bhantam..... Such an Atma naturally has to be sarvajnaha all revealing or Omniscient. Sarvajnaha will be interpreted in two different ways according to the context - sometimes we say Ishwara is sarvajnaha and sometimes we say nirguna Brahma or Atma is sarvajnaha - they have to be understood in different ways. When we say Ishwara - term Ishwara includes Atma plus Maya - KNower of everything in the creation - and He has a Omniscient Mind which is nothing by Maya. Ishwaras sarvajnatvam is through Maya. In this context we are talkiing about chaitanya Atma - and when we say this chaitanya Atma is sarvajnaha - it means it is the revealer of everything including Maya - how? by itself. Ishwara's sarvajnatvam is savikaram - Brahmans sarvajnatvam is nirvikaram;
yetadvaitat - This is That. Which is what?? From the context we understand this and that.
kim tat yat Nachiketasa prshtam devadhibhiradi vichikitsikitam dharmaadibyonyat Vishnor paramam padam yasmat param nasti tattvaa etat adhigatamityartha
Etad is this consciousness. kim tat - what is meant by tat?It is nothing other than that which Nachiketas asked about yat Nachiketasa prshtam (Katha U 1.1.20) devadi virabi vichikitsitam which Atma is debated by even the Gods- i.e. even the Gods do not know it (Katha U 1.1.21) dharmadibhya anyat (Katha U 1.2.14) which is other than Dharma and Adharma (cause and effect, other than past present and future, Absolute) and Vishnoparamampadam (Katha U 1.3.9) - the Ultimate Goal - absolute nature - nirgunam brahman, and unsurpassable yasmat param nasti (Katha Up 1.3.11) that alone is meant by That tat - adhigatam which has been learnt in this mantra as chaitanyam as the ever exerienced consciousness.
yena etena eva roopam rasam gandham shabdan sparshan maithunancha sarvaha vijanati etad vai tad (bhavati) atra kim parishishyate?

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