Saturday, July 18, 2009

Katha Upanishad; Shankara Bhashya: Valli 4, Mantra 4 and 5.

AS introduces
atisukshmatvat durvijneyam iti matvaitamevartham punarpunaha aaha

atisukshmatvat Since this Atma tattvam is extremely subtle - not in terms of size - but in the sense of not being available for sensory perception indriya agocham - hence durvijneyam - extremely difficult to comprehend as it is unobjectifiable. iti matva considering this difficulty on the part of the student punah punah Acharya - Lord Yama - repeatedly talks about the same teaching. Repetetition is the Universal trait of every Vedanta Acharya.

Mantra 4
Svapnantam jagratitancha cha ubaou yena anupashyati
Mahantam vibhumatmanam matva dheero na sochati

In the previous mantra Atma is revealed through drk drshya viveka. IN this mantra Atma is revealed through avastha traya viveka by an analysis of the three states of experience. We can make 2 conclusions - it is consciousness principle - the witnessood reveals sentiency of atma - and indirectly it also means it is Different from avasthatrayam - because witness is different from witnsessed. Once you say this body also falls under witnessed. Sthula shareeram is not available in svapna and sushupti and falls. Sukshma shareeram is not available in jagrat. All theses shareerams being mutually exclusive Atma has to be other than them. Thus consciousness being the nonvariable factor and the avasthas being mutually exclusive and the bodies coming under the variable factors - consciousness is different
Kaivalyam - trishudhamasu yatbhogyam bhokta yascha ...tebhyoh vilakshana sakshi chinmatroham sadashiva. In each avastha there is a triputi and triputi in one avastha does not persist in the other and I who am the witness of the triputi am different from them. IN this mantra only 2 avasthas are mentioned - 3rd - i.e. sushupti we have to supply. Also jnana phalam is metioned - whoever recognizes this atma as myself does not have grief or worry after this knowledge. Second half of this mantra is repetetion of 1.2.22. This is gist of the mantra.

Svapnantam svapnamadhyam svapna vijneyam ityarthaha tatha jagratantam jagrtamadhyam jagrtavijneyancha ubhau svapnajagrtanta yena atmana anupashyati loka iti sarvam pur bhavat

svapnantam is the 1st word in the muam - means svapna madhyam - what is within the svapna avastha. means svapna vikneyam the objects of experience in the svapna. drshya or snubhuta padarthaha which includes even desha kala time and space. WShen svapna desha comes jagrat desha kala disappears and same for kala of course.
tatha moreover jagrantam in the same way - jagrta madhyam = jagrta vijneyam = objects of experience during wake. Ubhau - both of them - svpajagrtaanta - because of Atma the witness consciousness alone - lokaha anupashyati - every living being experiences. Every living being experiences the waking and dream states because of this witness consciousness alone - self-revealing svayam prakashaha and simultaneously reveals others also - technical term is svaparanirvahakatvam - example is of a flame. Flame reveals itself and reveals other objects. iti sarvam pur bhavat - the rest of the sloka is exactly like in the previous mantra. A similar objection like in the previous mantra can be raised and the answer is also the same as in the previous mantra.

tam mahantam vibhumatamanam matvagamya atmabhavena sakshat aham asmi paramatmeti dhiro na shochati
tam mahantam vibhum atmanam (same as in 1.2.22) matva means avagamya - knowing comprehending the above mentioed atma - how? - atmabhavena avagamya - that paramatma I am - as identical with myself - sakshat - aparokshataya - means aham asmi paramatma iti - I am the Paramatma. After this knowlede the discriminative qualified student dhirah na shocati - does not grieve. (BG - gatasun agatasunscha nanu shochanti panditah)

Yena (sarvaha) svapnantam jagrtantam cha ubhau anupashyati tam mahaantam vibhum atmanam matva dheerah na shochati

Often when talking about knowing the Atma the Up uses the term anupashyati instead of simply saying pashyati - anu indicates that along with the teaching of the Guru and the shastra 0r in line with the teaching of the Guru and the shastra - to indicate the only pramanam for this knowledge is Shastra - no other pramanam has access to this knowledge - therefore the knowledge revealed by the Shastra is final exactly like knowledge obtained sensory perception does not require any further validation - this is the significance of the term anupashyati - shastraupadehsa anusarena...

Mantra 5
ya imam madhvadam veda atmanam jivaman antikaat
eeshanam bhutabhavyasya na tado vijugupsate etadvaitat

Every mantra here is a mahavakya. In 4th mantra also 1st half svapnantam jagrantam cha refers to the tvampada jiva, mahantam vibhum atmanam refers to tatpada the Paramatma...matva refers to the aikyam..Similarly the 5th mantra in this very important section is also a mahavakya
Suppose a vedantic student understands this jivatma currently considered to be a karta bhokta etc to be identical with ishana the paramatma by regularly practicing nidhidhyasanam - he does not seek protection from outside.
As a lay person one seeks protection from surrounding people - father mother etc. As a religious person one seeks support from God - both lay person and religious person are samsaris. After going to jnana yoha one doesnt seek protectin neither from the world nor from God. He does not run anywhere for protection - only where threat is there protection is required - atma cant be threatened by anyone. this is called abhayaprapti - one of the definitions of moksha is abhayaprapti. This ekatma - jivatma paramatma joined together is ekatma - this is the atma you wanted to know in all the prior slokas.
Now the bhashyam
ya kaschit imam matpadam karmaphala bhujam jeevam pranadi kalpasya dhaarayitaram atmanam veda vijanati antika antike sameepe ishanam ishitaram bhuta bhavyasya kalatrayasya tad vijananath urdhvam atmanam na vijugupsate na gopayam abhaya praptatvat.

yaha kaschit - Suppose a person - refers to any qualified person (sadhanachatustaya) imam - knows this jiva matpadam is in the phalam - means karmaphalabhujam the experiencer of karmaphala - madhu means honey and refers to karmaphalam. honey is also dear and sought after just like karmaphalam. karma is never loved for its sake - people are engaged in karma for karmaphalam - jivam - pranadi kalapasya dharayitaram - one who holds the prana in the body. jiva the chidabhasa keeps the prana in the physical body - when the jiva wants to quit the body he takes the prana with him.. kalapaha means group of prana etc - etc referring to sense organs, etc. atmanam veda - knows this atma. jivabhute sanatanah..shareeram yadavapnoti..etc jiva is called the holder of the prana in the body. So suppose a person knows - veda = vijanati -such a jivatma - residing where? antikat? - means antike close samipe - in the antahkaranam as the sakshichaitanyam hradaya akashe vartamanam - closes to you...and know the jivatma as what? as ishana - the paramatma. ishana - means ishitaram iti ishanam the Master - the one who sustains, srshti sthitilaya karta - the Master of the past present and future - bhuta bhavyasya - which means all three states of time kalatrayasya - kalateetah the Master of time, not bound or limited by kala (- in 1.2.14 asks this who is beyond time) By this knowledge tatah = tad vijnanat urdhvam - tad jivatma paramatma aikya jnanant na vijugupsate no gopayam icchati he does not look for a savior to protect him.
Before the world being the victimizer, i am the victim and Bhagwan is the savior - this is the mindset. Now the knowledge is I am of a higher order of reality and the world is of a lower order of reality - so the world which is anatma/mithya is incapable of victimizing abhaya praptatvat - he attains self security. (- adrshye anatma ..nilayane...hy evaisha etasminn adrishye anatmye anirukte 'nilayane abhayam pratishtham vindate 'tha so 'bhayam gato bhavati yada hy evaisha etasminn udaram antaram - Taittriya Brahmavalli )
yavat hu bhayam adhyatsta anityam atmanam manyate yavat gopayitum icchati atmanam
As long as one is triangular format the sense of insecurity can never go away - either insecurity centered on myself or insecurtiy centered on pancha anatma possession, profession, family, mind and body - when i am associated with any one of these five anatmas i am in triangular format and the world is a threat and i am vulnerable. yavat as long as atmanam anityam manyate one looks upon oneself as anitya shareeram, jiva is always vulnerable as he is subject to the invisible prarabdha - tavat so long gopayitum atmanam icchati one will always seek sharanagati or shelter outside in some karma or Bhagwan....or somebody or the other.
yada tu advaitam atmanam vijanati tadakim kutovaa gopayitum icchet
etadvaitad iti poorvavat
yada tu On the other hand - nityam advaitam atmanam vijanati one deliberately and through long effort switches the format from triangular to binaery and understands onself to be eternal and nondual - mayyeva sakalam jatam, etc...tada then - kim gopayitum kaha gopayitum icchet-who will try to protect whom and from what? all this is in the realm of duality.In advaitam there is neither protector nor protected nor a threat or source of fear....etadvai tat and this ekatma is the Absolute reality which you wanted to know (anyatra dharmat,etc . ) this has been commented upon before - poorvavat.
yaha imam antikat [sthitam] matpadam jivam atmanam bhuta bhavyasya ishanam veda saha tatah na vijugumsate.

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