Wednesday, June 24, 2009

Katha Upanishad: Shankara Bhasya; Chapter 2: Valli 4, Mantra 1

Esha sarvesu bhuteshu gudhotmanam prakashate drshyate agryaya buddhya ityuktam
Sankulah Pratibandhah agryaya buddehe enatadabhavat atmana drshyate iti
Tadadarshanakarana pradarshanartha Vanarabhyate

IN the 1st chapter it has established that jnAnam is the means of liberation because ajnanam alone is the obstacle between me and te Purusha and that ananam goes away with knowledge, and knowledge takes place when there is combination of the triputi called pramata pramana and prameya. There is no choice involved – if there is a sound, my ears are there, knowledge of the sound will be produced. If knowledge is not taking place there is defect in one of the three.
So a student should know what are th doshas and see how to remove the pratibandha.

In atmajnanam – pramanam is shastra upadesha – shastra is nirdushta pramana – coming from the Lord – and is coming from generaton and generation.
Also prameyam is Atma or Brahman is me, closest to me, and therefore prameya dosha is not there.
So dosha can only be in the pramata – a varieties of pratibandhas or doshas can be there. Shastra discusses varieties of difficulties in different context. IN the beginning of this valli - one particular dosha is going to be highlighted – extrovertedness – or mental preoccupation with anatma. In particular - these four components of anatma can preoccupy

P - possession
O – obligatory dities
R - relations
T – transactions.

Any one of these keep my mind preoccupied. A preoccupied mind is called sthulabuddhi and this cannot appreciate sukshma artma and this sthula buddhi needs to be converted to sukshma buddhi. That conversion can only take place by getting out of this extrovertedness..
The 1st mantra deals with bahirmukhapratibandha – in the Lalita sahasranama Antarmukha samaradhya bahirmukha sudurlabha - Antarmukha samaradhya: Whose worship is easy for those whose, mental gaze is turned inward.
Bahirmukha sudurlabha: Whose worship difficult for those whose mental gaze goes outwards.

Bahirmukhatvam is a pratibandha which converts sukshma into sthula buddhi.
Kaha punah pratibandha what is the obstacle for agryaya buddhya for enjoying a subtle intellect? Kena? Because of which? Tad abhavat – the student is lacking a sukshma buddhi and hence absorption in the class and has a shallow and has a preoccupied mind – has a sthula buddhi. Only gross statements the intellect can grasp. So the everexperenced atma is lost sight of – atma na drshyate. Tad adarshana karanam – absence of sukshma buddhi because of mental preoccupation bahir mukhatvam. To show this this valli is begun.

Vijnanadehi Shreya pratibandhakarane tadapanayanaaya yatna arabhyum shakyate

Vijnanedhi only if a student recognizes the problem of what? Shreya pratibandhakarane – the obstacle to the atmajnana (sthulabuddhi due to bahirmukhatva) Sannyasa is nothing but PORT reduction. (no P, no O, no R and hence not much of T!) Even if a person does not become a formal sannyasi his aim should be reduction of PORT. Karmayoga and jnanayoga are diagnolly opposite in terms of infrastructure.

A railway station is ideal for train travel but is a obstacle for studying for a exam. So we are not criticizing karmayoga – we should decide which is our yoga and we should choose our infrastructure properly. For jnanayoga PORT reduction is conducive.

Tadabhagamanaya – to remove the obstacles – (bahirmukhatvam which prevents Vedanta shravana,etc) yatnaha – effort in the right direction, shedding PORT including the fee aarabhyam shakyate – should be started. Na anyatha – not otherwise.(vyatireka nyaya) Karana avijnate – if the obstacle is unknown I will not be able to remedy – diagnosis is important. Pramtr dosha nivrti must e done after diagnosing it.

With this beautiful introduction – now we will start the study of this valli.

Paranchikhani vyatrnat svayambhuh
Tasmat paraan pasyati nantaratman
Kaschit dheerah prtyagatmanam aikshat
Aavrtah chakshur amrtatvam icchan

The Up has withdrawn from the dialog temporarily. The Up. Itself is saying – Every being is born with a natural disadvantage – natural extrovertedness of all our senseorgans. All of them are turned towards anatma. For them to perceive anatma no effort is required and they are incapable of perceiving atma. We are born extroverted – anatmadarshana is natural – the very current of the river is against where my goal is and hence double effort is required by me. If I put in minimal effort – the current will take me farther away – effort is in fact needed even to remain where I am.
Hence Up says Brahma-ji has destroyed all the sense organs by making them naturally handicapped – congenital handicap of perceiving only anatma. Atma is asparsham, arupam, etc. Hence all are trapped. Just to diagnose this problem – entire life is gone. Only some people recognize that anatma while having beauty does not have stability, and manage to turn their attention to shastra pramana and recognize the atma.

Paranchi Paragancchanti gacchanti iti khani tad lakshitani shrotradindriyani khani ucchyante.

The 1st word in mulam is paranchi.- parag anchanti – those instruments which go outward. What are they? – khani – kham means akasham - in this context akasha means apertures or holes – the openings of the ears, eyes, nostrils, etc IN this context these apertures or gateways refer to the sense organs. Vacyartham is aperture – lakshyartham is sense organs. Shrotradini indriyani – they are the 5 sense organs. (Navadvaram to use Gita terminology) it uchyante – they are said to be.

Tani parancheva shabdadi vishaya prakashanaya yasmat evam svabhivakani tani vyadhrunat himsitavan hananam krtavan ityartha
Tani – Now he is giving vakyartha – those sense organs which are called khani - paranchi eva – they are turned outward only. For what purpose – shabdadi vishaya prakashanaya – for illumining five fold sense objects like sound, etc (S,s,r,r,g) When you see the wall – the wall is not the sense object – the form and color of the wall is the sense object.
So what? Yasmat evam svabhavakani tani – Since, endowed with such a nature, tani – the fivefold sense organs, - vyadrnath – Bhagwan has harmed them! They have been spiritually hurt/handicapped/destroyed himsitavan hananam krtavan ityartha – they cannot see atma – handicap no1 and handicap 2 is they don’t allow me to study Vedanta – they only see anatma and dragging me to one place after another...balastavad kreeda saktah-----

Kosau svayambhu parameshwara parameva svantantro bhavati sarvadha naparatantra iti
Shankara asks a question - kaha asau? Who has destroyed the sense organs - answer is svayambhu – parameshwara. Svayambhu can refer to Ishwara or Hirangarbha according to the context. Hiranyagarbha is subject to birth, is called prathamajah – not because of karma but because of Himself – hence svayambhu – svayam jayate iti svayambhu. When svayambhu refers to Ishwara you cannot say he is “born” because Ishwara does not have birth. Svayamah eva bhavati or asti iti svayambhu. Here Svayambhu refers to Ishwara – therefore Parameshwara. Svatantrah – as a Master, a free person (na paratantra - unlike jivA who is paratantra – a slave of sanchita karma prarabdha karma etc) sarvada asti – exists always. Such a Ishwara has made the sense organs handicapped.

Tasmat parak parakrupan anatma bhutanshabdadin paschyat upalabhate upalabdhah naantaratman naantaratmanam ityarthah

Therefore tasmat because of this incapacity to know atma, paran paschyati every jivA sees parak rupan – external objects. Anatma Bhutan which are all anatma only of the nature of sound etc shabdadi. Final meaning of paran is shabdadi – the external world of sense stimuli - Upalabhate – perceive. (Difference between see (paschyate) – knowing with the eye – upalabhate – perceive can refer to all sense organs.) upalabhdhah – manushyah. All the time busy with PORT – na antaratman – never perceives the inner Atman or inner Self.

Evam svabhavaepisati lokasya kaschit
Natyahpratisrotah pravartanam iva
eerodhiman viveki prtyagatmanam prtyagchapaatmanepi prtyagatma
Now AS comes to the 3rd qtr – evamsvabhavaepisati lokasya – even though the entire humanity has got this natural sensory handicap – extrovert nature – kaschit – there are rare people – dhirah – dhiman = viveki discriminate person who resist all the temptations. This is like pravartanam iva moving or rowing pratisrotah – against the current of a river natyah. Bhagwan has also given the solution by giving the person a discriminating intellect – parikshya lokan…. Anatma has novelty and variety but no stability – viveki is someone with sadhanachatushtaya sampatti – aikshat – viveki prthyagatmana aikshat – realizes the Atman or the Self. To indicate how uphill a task it is the example is given of moving against the current of a river. When we use the term prthyag – we misunderstand that atma is inside the body – prthyag means inner self – therefore to realize atma we have to close eyes and look deep inside the body is a common misconception – “inside” means inside the entire nama-rupa prapapancha. The entire universe is outer and the namarupa as though hide the existence – by distracting the attention away from the existence – and hence existence is “inside” or “Inner”. Verse 20 of Drg Drsya Viveka.

Praticheva atmashabdau rudho loke nanyasmin
AS gives the significance of the term prtyag – an idiom used by the Shastra – Atma is referred to as the inner self – prthyag. AS analyzes the word atma – one refers to the rudha artha common meaning and other is ontological or derivate meaning – yoga arthah.
For example when we use term khagah for a bird – it has got a popular or direct meaning or rudha artha of bird. Yougica artha – khagah consists of kham and ga – sky and mover – that which moves in the sky. So in this case yogica artha or derivate meaning also means bird alone. If we use the term khagah for a aeroplane – it is not a direct meaning but only from the standpoint of derivate meaning. The word atma refers to the inner self both from rudhi artha popularly known in the world pratichi eva – as referring to oneself only; not in any other meaning nanyasmin and from yougica artha as well which is being now mentioned.

Vitpati pakshe api tatrai atmashabdo vartate yacchapnoti yadadatte yachharti vishayaniha yacchasya santato bhaavah tasmat atmeti kirtyate ityatmashabdautpatti smaranat
Now the etymological derivation vitpatti paskshah of the word atma. Atma shabdah vartate – the word Atma is employed tatra eva – only in the sense of the inner self. The word Atma is derived from four different Sanskrti roots – and based on this four different meanings can be derived. This is from linga purana 1.70.96 – Sw. Vidyaranya analyzes this verse elaborately in Anubhuti Prakasha.
1st definition - Apnoti iti atma – the root “ap” has the meaning to pervade. So the first meaning is that which is all-pervading.Spatially unlimited is the 1st meaning. Pervader of all.
2nd definition – “a” prefix plus “dha” is the root – to resolve - the word adhanam - to resolve into oneself, to withdraw, to fold back – aadatte sarvam pralayakale iti atma that which takes back everything unto itself at the time of pralayam – layakaranam ityarthah Consumer of all.
3rd definition – adh – to eat or experience (bhogah) sukha-dukha. Atma alone,through sukshmashareeram, jivarupena as a jiva, sarvam adhi or anubhavati/bhunkte iti atma. Experiencer of all.
4th definition From the root “ath” – athati – to exist permanently. Satatam asti iti atati à atma

Because of these four meanings - Atma is called soul – 1st and 2nd meanings is applicable from paramatma standpoint, 3rd meaning from the standpoint of jiva, and 4th for both.

Yad cha apnoti – now coming back to the sloka – yasmat apnoti – since it is all-pervading, yat aadatte – since it resolves everything at pralayam, yatcha atthi - since atma experiences everything i.e. sense objects – vishayan - as jiva iha in this janma, and yasmat asya santatath bhavah – and atma has got permanent existence – because of these 4 etymological derivations tasmat Atma is mentioned as the soul or inner self, smarnat – in the Smrti grantha(LP)

Tam prtyagatmanamsvam svabhavam aikshat apaschyat pashyati ityarthah

That inner self tam prtyagatmana svam svabhavam which is ones own real nature – why do we say real nature – because we have unreal nature in form of annamayakosha pranamaya kosha – body is pseudoself – because I use the 1st person singular wrongly for the body, and similarly for the mind, wheras chaitanyam alone is our true self or real self. Aikshat – is apaschyat – understand it as pashyati….whenever you use a general rule you use the present tense. Only a rare human being is able to see this truth – that is the meaning.

(Why should Up use past tense? – AS says Veda has got that liberty! – chandasi iti veda kalah aniyamat)

Katham paschyati ituchyate avrtachakshuh avrtam vyavrtam chakshuh shrotradi indriyajatam ashesha vishyat yatra avrta chakshuh

Now AS enters the 4th qtr. He introduces katham paschyati? How does the rare person see the Atman? Avrttachakshuh – avrttam chakshuh – that person whose eyes are turned inwards. In this context the eyes refer to all the sense organs as well shrotradi indriyajatam..all these are turned inwards vyavrtam from all the tempting sense objects ashesha vishayat. Does not mean closing the eye – attention should be turned from nama rupa to sat aspect. Yasyaiva sfuranam sadatmakam asat kalparthakam bhasate….

Sa evam samskrtah prtyagatmanam pashyati bahyavishaya alochana paratvam prtyagatme ikshanam cha ekasya bhavati
AS adds a note in this context
Sah that avrttah chakshuh – the person who has turned his attention or eyes inward - evam samskrtah who has refined himself by developing vairagyam, and has a mind not preoccupied by raga dvesha, (BG 15th yatanto yoginah…) Pashyati does not mean mystical perception in Samadhi – perception here means claiming I am that prtyagtama. Both atma darhsanam and anatma darshanam cannot be simultaneously produced – if you focus on one you use sight of the other. Bahyavishaya alochana paratvam Focusing on external objects and prtyagatma ikshanam recognition of the True Self ekasya na sambhavati – cannot go alone together. When taking a picture you cannot focus on the face and a remote mountain range in the background both at the same time. Ya nisha sarvabhutanam…from BG.
For a wise person jnAni samsara is as good as nonexistent. And for a samsAri jagat is satyam and Brahman is mithyA – it fades into insignificance when compared to household problems which loom large – why? Because focus is misplaced.
So, Anatma tatparyam and atma tatparyam cannot exist. Bahyavishaya aalochanam paratvam – commitment with regard to dwelling upon or interest in anatma external world INCLUDING the body and mind; when we focus on mind improvement we are getting away from Vedanta – aim of Vedanta is not mind improvement it is mind falsification. Amanitvam, etc is important but if we get obsessed with those virtues that also can be an obstacle, as I am obsessed with improvement in anatma which is an endless process – instead focus should be mithyA nischaya. Focus on knowing or realizing the prthyagatma is necessary. AS takes a lot of pain to negate jnana-karma samucchaya. Karma is always focused on anatma improvement, and Jnana is focused on anatma falsification, and claiming the atma that never requires any improvement.

Why should we take so much pain? Is it all worthy? What are we going to get?

Kim artham punaha? Ittham mahata prayatena svabhava pravrtti nirodham krtva dhirah prtyagatmanam pashyati ityuchyate. Amrtatvam amaranadharmatvam itya svabhavata icchan at manah ityarthah

For what purpose kim artham should a Vedantic seeker make such a great effort mahata prayatnena – to reverse the natural orientation svabhava pravrtti – we are naturally drawn to or focused on anatma issues of profession, possession, family, body, mind – tremendous resistance and control needs to be exercised – nirodham krtva – dhirah – which this discriminative person endowed with scs, makes effort in order to recognize the prthyagatma – for what?? In other words, why does such a seeker take so much effort? Amrtatvam = amaranadharmatvam – nature of immortality – the nature of permanence or eternity. Icchan – desiring such moksha for oneself – atmanah. I transcend attachment to birth and death – no ragadvesha for either life nor death.

Early on our vairagyam, our concept of moksha is immature - life is full of sorrow, is a big problem Life is a struggle Punarjanma is a big bondage - moksha means release from, escape from this cycle, and fall in the lap of the Lord never to come back again. This is a terrible attitude of the world. This type of conventional moksha is hatred of the world.
This concept of moksha should be in a more advanced stage – I have no attachment to life – nor to death. Let creation continue – it doesn’t bother me.
Samsara is MBBS – meaningless burdensome boring struggle – this MBBS attitude should go away – that is moksha!

Svayambhuh paranchikhani vyathrnat. Tasmat manushyah paranpashyati; antaratman na (pashyati). Amrtatva icchan aavrtta chakshuh san kaschit dhirah prthyagatmanam aikshat.