Friday, June 26, 2009

Katha Upanishad; Shankara bhashya: Ch.2; Valli 4, Mantra 2

Yat taavat svabhavikam anatmadarshanam - perception of anatma which is svabhavikam very natural to people - balastavta kreeda sakta...is the typical biography of the majority - natural extrovertedness - parag eva turning towards the external anatma - external in Vedanta includes mind and body - external from the standpoint of atma. Even worries are external - including worrying about the worries. Worries come under anatma - as Katha Up student I should not get lost in worries and claim the asanga atma and stop worrying. tat - that extroverted preoccupation is atmadarshanasya pratibandha karanam - it is the cause for the obstruction of atma jnanam because extrovertedness distracts my attention and i miss the sakshi atma. This is called avidyA - avidya iti ucyate. not the mula avidya or karana avidya but adhyasa roopa karya avidya. tat pratikoolatvat - because extrovertedness is contrary to atmajnana. What is the second pratibandha - attachment or desire for a part of anatma - yacha parakshu eva avidya upapradarshateshu drshtadrhetshu bhogeshu trshna...remember the BG - dhyayetu vishayan pumsah ...trshna - desire or attachment or temptation towards bhogeshu sense objects - drshta-of theis world and adrshte - invisible objects of the other world (heaven, urvashi rambha, etc etc) and all of them are mahamithyA - avidya upapradarshiteshu - projected by mula avidya ....vishwam darpana drshyamanya nagari....kalpiteshu ityarthah....and parakshu - external to atma, false sense objects. So this trshna - greed/desire/craving is the second obstacle pratibandha karanam for atmadarshanam. tabhyam - because of these 2 powerful obstacles - karya avidya and trshna - pratibaddha atmadarshanah - the atmajnana is obstructed for the majority of the humanity. Once atma is missed - when the end(goal) is missed then the ends(wordly goals) are endless!
Yama dharmaraja talks about what happens to them.
Mantra 2
paracha kaman anuyanti balah te mrtyor yanti vitatasya paasham
atha dheerah amrtatvam viditwaa dhruvam adhruveshu iha na praarthayante
Gist:
The 1st 2 lines talk about those who are under the grip of avidya and kama - the 3rd natural consequence is karma - endless activity - both laukika and vaidika - riddled with kamya or parihara or nishidha karma - karmas will expand more and more and they will be caught in the www world wide web of yama dharmaraja! While the vivekis by contrast will come to nitya maimittika karmas and sooner or later come to vedanta and discover purnatvam here and now.


Paracho bahirgataneva kaman kamyan vishayaan anuyanti anugacchanti baala alpaprajna.

Baalah - alpa prajna - children maturity-wise - spiritually stunted like a bonsai tree - paracha - bahir gatan - extroverted external ones - meaning kaaman - meaning kamyan vishayan - desire for sense objects (including desire for body also) anuyanti means anugacchanti - means they run after - either laukika or dharmika karmas (- ya imam pushpitan vachan...from BG) ..wheras vedanta is never against nitya naimitiika karma - which is part of nivrtti marga / shreya marga only.


te tenakaranena mrtyor avidya kama karma samudhayasya yantigacchanti vitatasya visteernasya sarvato vyaptasya paasham paashyate vastyate yena tam paasham dehendriyadi samyogaviyoga lakshanam anavarata janmamarana jararogadyaneka anartharathav prathipadyanti ityarthah
te these people who are whipped up by avidya and kaama - tena karanena - because of this reason - i.e. pursuit of anatma - mrtyor paasham yanti - they enter into the trap of the mrtyu Death - just like a mousetrap has a coconut piece (anatma) - similarly we are rats involved in the rat race and bite the anatma coconut piece and get trapped in Yama's trap. Here mrtyu here represents avidya kama karma samudhaya - the triad of avidya kama and karma.Sambandha of atma and avidya is the definition of kaala. Pasham is the trap. yanti - they enter into gacchanti. vithatasya - means mistheernasya means sarvato vyaptasya - or world wide web - www! - spreads over all the 14 lokas including Brahmaji who are all within time and space only. just like a fisherman spreads his net wide this net of avidya kama karma is also spread wide and traps - that which catches you is paasham - caught in the cycle of dehendriyadi samyoga viyoga lakshanam - constantly taking the body in the form of punarjnama and maranam. Yama is avidya kama karma, yama's pasham is shareera and through that janma, birth, sthula shareera samyoga jara, old age, roga, degenrative disease, etc maranam death sthula shareera viyoga. aneka anartha vraatha - mutitudes of diversities and pains and hardships. Such a network of Yama pratipadyanti - these bahirmukha jivas get entrapped in. anavaratam indicates this process is eternal and continuous.
yatayevam atatasmat dheera vivekinah prthyagtmasvarupavasthanalakshanam amrtatvam dhruvam viditva deva amrtatvam hi adhruvam idam tu prthyagatmasvarupavasthanalakshanam na karmana loka kaliyan iti dhruvam
Atha dheera means therefore tasmat - yatah evam - because of the above reason - extrovert reason go to mortality - therefore dheerah meaning vivekinah - those who can differentiate shreyas and preyas -amrtatvam means moskha which AS defines as abiding avasthanam in ones own nature svarupa as prthyagatman - abiding in the knowledge that i have prthyagatma - nonforgetfulness of this fact. I never look upon as a sadhaka and I dont look upon any actions as sadhana and I never look upon moksha as a sadhyam - abiding in this is amrtatvam. dhruvam here means absolute - absolute immortality. viditva means these dheerah know this atman to be their own nature. What is the significance of the adjective absolute dhruvam? it is required only if there is more than one moksha. Relative immortality is adhruvam - devaadi amrtatvam -n when a jiva becomes a celestial attainment of deva status is also called immortality because devas have got relatively very long lifespan and can be called amrtatvam - aapekshika amrtatvam. idam tu on the other hand the immortality of abiding is ones own nature prthyagatmasvarupaavasthanalakshanam is dhruvam. Pramana is Br.Up - na karmana vardhate no kaniyan....

tadevam bhutam kutastham avichalya amrtatvam vidhitva adhruveshu sarvapadarthesu anityeshu nirdharya brahmana iha samsare anarthapralenaprarthayante kincit api prthyagatma darshana pratikulatvat putravittalokaikshanayah yuttishanti yutthishantevebhyah arthah

Dhruvam means kutastham means avichalyam means absolute. Vidhitva - having clearly known and having attained - vidhi dhatu 2nd conjug to known 6th dhatu to attain. Discriminative people know and attain absolute immortality - nirdharya - have grasped. That nitya vastu they discover which is very much amidst the mortal objects sarvapadarthesu anityeshu - wherever anitya padartha is there in the very same place nitya padartha vastu is also there...adhruveshu madhye - amidst the anitya shareeram itself. the very is-ness of any object, the very consciousness of the conscious body is the nitya vastu. satrupena chitrupena nirdharya - having grasped the sat and chit nitya aspect - whoever as got that is called a Brahmana. Brahmana means guna brahmana a sattvapradhana brahmana. Those gunabrahmanas attain immortality - they have nothing to ask for in life - iha - somsare in this world - anarthapraye - which is saturated, riddled with anartha or problems - na kincit api prarthayante - they have nothing to ask from the Lord. why? prthyagatmadarshane pratikulatvat - because all desires are counter to or not conducive to nishta in the atmadarshana. Because all prayers - esp deep and sincere - are directed towards anatma - and once we get atmadarshanam anatma has to be understood as mithya and any deep prayer is attaching reality sattya buddhi - to anatma. Hence a jnani who wants to keep mithyatva buddhi strong does not want to offer any special prayer - any prarabdha is welcome. Giving up all the prayers is sannyasa ashrama - in every ashrama as a part of ashrama dharma there will always be seeking; ashrama situation brings in kamya prarthana. Hence take to sannyasa.putralokaeshanashya yutthisyanti - grhstashrama is associated with 3 desires - putra, vitta, and loka eshana (- Br Up 3.5.1 and 4.4.22 referenced here) From all these kamya prarthanas these brahmanas grow out - they take to sannyasa. If external sannyasa is not possible, then compromised internal sannyasa at least one should do.
Anvyah
Balah parachaha kaaman anuyanti te vitatasya mrtyoh paasham yanti atha dheerah adhruveshu (madhye) dhruvam amrtatvam viditva iha (kincit) na prarthayante.