Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Katha Upansihad; Shankara Bhashya: Chap 1 Valli3. Mantra 5 to 7




Mantra 5
Yas tu avijnaanavaan bhavati ayuktena manasaa sadaa
Tasyendriyaanyavashyaani dushtaashvaa iva saaratheh

Gist
Now based on the chariot imagery given in the previous two mantras, the Up now mentions certain disciplines or sadhanas so that the chariot can have a successful journey - when all the components are fit and they function in coordination; and the journey is a failure if unfit and they function in discord


First the Up says the driver must be informed. An intellect informed by Shastra is endowed with viveka. Viveka or in other words a disciplined intellect leads to a disciplined mind or shama. Thus the reins must be under control – similarly the mind should be under control. A disciplined intellect should control the mind – shama. When the driver is informed AND the reins are under control together they would have mastered the horses i.e. sense organs. Shama or a disciplined mind leads to disciplined sense organs Dama. On the other hand uninformed driver with reins uncontrolled will have no mastery over the horses – like wild horses.

Now the bhashya
Tatra evam sati this being the imagery with regard to the spiritual journey yastu buddhya saarathi suppose the driver who is known as buddhi avijnavaan bhavati is not well informed or is lacking in discrimination between shreyas and preyas. avijnavan means aviveki – vague and confused – regarding what? Pravrtau cha nivrtau cha – karma marga and jnana marga (– both has limitation – former cannot give moksha and latter cannot be directly entered – karmayoga is incomplete without going to jnanayoga; jnanayoga is impossible without karmayoga). So suppose the driver called intellect is confused yatha itaraha rathacharyayam just as the other charioteer (in the example) cannot reach the destination without adequate knowledge about the direction. Once viveka is absent mind will not have discipline called shama. This is mentioned in the second quarter of the mantra – ayuktena manasa sada bhavati – therefore because of lack of viveka the mind lacks yuktatvam or shama or discipline. Ayuktena means shama rahitena; apragrheetena (lack of restraint) – means most of my thoughts happen without my permission or awareness. Most of the time mind is chattering or prattling its own thougts – what is happening in the mind I am unaware of and if aware am helpless in being able to stop. Another term is asamahitena – not well-managed or scatterbrain. Pragrhasthaneeyena – mind plays the role of or is compared to the reins (in the example) manasaa sadaa ayuktaha bhavati – mind can wander now and then; no one can have a perfect mind all the time. “Mind is Chanchalam” (Gita) Generally if it is focused and rarely if it is wavered – Shastra says doesn’t matter – similar to physical health. [Principle of FIR reduction – frequency, intensity, and recovery time – should be remembered.] In Panchadashi Vidyarnya says jwara is natural. But here sadaa ayuktena – all the time it is depressed, now and then only it is motivated.
In the 3rd quarter AS adds tasya akushalasya buddhi saarathe – for that indiscriminate buddhi charioteer – the horses will not be listening to his commands – (body is in class but ears will not be available for listening!) – indriyani ashwasthaneeyani avashyani bhavanti – avashyani means ashakya nivaranani – means unrestrainable or uncontrollable. Against my will or permission they will do whatever they want – like the wild horses dushashwaha or adanta ashwaha itara sarathe – just as in a regular charioteer.
Anvaya
Yaha avijnanavan (buddhi) sarathi tu sada ayuktena manasa bhavati tasya indriyani saaratheh dushtashvaaha iva avashyaani bhavanti.

Mantra 6

Yastu vijnaanavaan bhavati yuktena manasaa sadaa
Tasyendriyaani vashyaani sadashvaa iva saaratheh

Just the opposite idea – the anvaya argument (after the vyatireka argument)
Viveka à shama à dama.

Bhashyam
Yaha tu punaha – tu to indicate the difference of this driver from that driver – in contrast this driver is different from the one talked about earlier – purvokta viparitaha – saarathi bhavati – in what way – vijnanavan – by being a viveki – with regards to pravrtti and nivrtti. Then what? Pragrheeta manaaha bhavati – he as a restrained mind. That means samahitena chitta – a restrained mind is a focused mind sada always [like a river which has a dam – dam serves twofold purpose – one is to conservation of water and secondly it directs the same water into the wanted fields – similarly discipline or shama means mind is restrained from unwanted thoughts mental energy is conserved and stored a worrying mind is an exhausted mind and exhausted mind is not available for shravana pragrheeta manaha refers to conservation and samahitena refers to channeling in this example.]
For such a wonderful charioteer indriyani vashyani – sense organs will listen to the mind; if mind says don’t look at this then eyes will obey. Sense organs are available shakyani for pravrti and nivrti itara sarathe – just like the well-trained well-tamed horses sadashwaaha (santa-!- ashwaha) in the regular chariot.

Anvaya
Yaha vijanavan (buddhi sarathi) tu sada yuktena manasaa bhavati tasya indriyani saaratheh shadashwaaha iva vashyaani bhavanti.

Now AS gives an introduction to 7
In prior 2 verses both anvaya and vyatireka with regard to viveka,shama and dama have been told.
The following 2 verses elaborate the consequences or destinations for both types of drivers or people.

Tasya purvoktasya buddhi saarithehe For the buddhi saarathi who has been enumerated 1st in the list i.e. 5th mantra – for that avijnaanavatah – who is not discriminate and lacking in shama-dama idam phalam aahah- this is the consequence of the journey – by extension this is the consequence for the master the jivAtma also.

Mantra 7

Yas tvavijnaanavaan bhavati amanaskah sadaashuchih
Na sa tat padam aapnoti sagmsaaram chaadhigacchati

Gist
In the 1st 2 quarters Up repeats the description of the avijnavaan driver – without viveka-shama-dama. Ashuchih refers to dama ahava – tat padam na apnoti – he will nevevr attain moksha he will successfully continue (contextual meaning of adhigachhati) in samsara -

Bhashya
Yaha ti avijnavan bhavati – viveka rahitaha bhavati. Amanaskaha bhavati – mindless (lit) but in this context AS clarifies it means absence of mind control/discipline - mano nigraha rahitaha. Apragrhteeham – unrestrained, one who does not know how to conserve the mental energy properly, who wastes the energy in worry fear tension etc sah Such a driver tatha eva because of that reason sadaa asuchih – who has impure sense organs (absence of damah) (indriya shauchah rahitah.) na saha – that Master jA tat padam napnoti – tat purvoktam aksharam param padam – the Ultimate Goal of Aksharama Brahma – sahan na apnoti – such a jA will not attain. Where purvoktam? Where has this been mentioned before? Ref Mantra 2 – 1st line – akshara brahma yat param – AS is reminding here.
Here there is a small grammatical problem because the pronouns in 1st and 2nd line refer to driver intellect and Master jivAtma respectively not to the same entity. AS supplies a word tena sarathina – a correlative – with the help of such a driver; saha jivAtma – that jA na apnoti…na kevalam kaivalyam na apnoti – not only will the jA will not attain moksha but also samsaram cha adhigacchati he attains samsara ( he continues in samsara) – janmamaranalakshanam – which is in the form of cycle of birth and death.

Anvaya
Yaha (buddhi sarathi) tu avijnanavan amanaskaha sada asuchih bhavati (tena) saha (rathi) tad padam na apnoti. Saha samsaram adhigacchati cha

2 comments:

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Ruth

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