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Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad 1.2.1 to 1.2.7

1In the beginning there was nothing whatsoever in the universe. By Death, indeed, all this was covered—by hunger, for hunger is, verily, death. "Let Me have a mind," was His desire and He created the mind. Then He moved about, worshipping Himself. From Him, thus worshipping, water was produced. "Verily," Death though, "while I was worshipping, water was produced"; that is why the Arka (fire used in the Horse—sacrifice) is so called. Surely, happiness comes to him who knows how the fire came to be called arka.
2Water, verily, is arka. What was then like froth on the water became solidified; that was earth. After the earth was created, Hiranyagarbha was tired. From Him, thus fatigued and heated, came forth His essence as brightness. That was Fire.
3
He divided Himself into three: the sun one—third and the air one—third. Thus Prana is divided into three. His head is the east and His arms are that (the north—east) and that (the south—east). His hinder part is the west and His two hip—bones are that (the north—west) and that (the south—west). His sides are the south and the north, His back is heaven, His belly is the intermediate region and His chest is the earth. Thus He stands firm on water. He who knows this stands firm wherever he goes.
4He desired: "Let a second self be born of Me," and He (Death or Hunger) brought about the union of speech with the mind. What was the seed there became the year. Prior to that there had been no year. He (Death) bore him (the year) for as long as a year and after that time projected him. Then, when he was born, Death opened His mouth to devour him. He (the child) cried: "Bhan!" and that, indeed, became speech.
5
He thought: "If I kill him, I shall have but very little food,'' and through the union of that speech and that mind He brought forth all this, whatever there is: the Rig—Veda, the Yajur—Veda, the Sama—Veda, the metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever He brought forth He resolved to eat. Verily, because He eats everything, therefore is Aditi (Death) called Aditi. He who knows why Aditi came to have this name of Aditi becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes his food.

Here Srshti is taken from Hiranyagarbha.
Word Mrtyu is the term for HG

HG divides Himself into Agni Vayu & Aditya Fire Wind & Sun

Agni manifests from HG is what is of relevance here.
Therefore Agni is great
Agni is given 2 titles - arka and apratishtithaha
How did Agni get this title ?
HG did not use effort
When HG was admiring (archati) his creative power Srshti emerged
1st to emerge apah called kam - short of udakam - water principle
Hence the term arka (archati + kam)

Since water gave rise to Agni Agni is also called arkah
One who meditates on Agni which is Arkam he will get arkam - and kam can refer to sukam happiness
Agni emerges from apah

Agni is apratishtitah and one who meditates will get pratishta security or support
Agni here is meditated upon as viraat which is detailed in the 3rd mantra in this section - eastern part of fire is head etc

6He desired: "Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice." He was tired and he practiced austerities. From Him thus fatigued and heated, His fame and vigour departed. The pranas (organs) are verily fame and vigour. When the pranas went out His body began to swell, but the mind was set on the body.
7He desired: "Let this body of Mine be fit for a sacrifice and let Me be embodied through this." Thinking thus, He entered the body. Because the body swelled (asvat), therefore it came to be called horse (asva). And because it became fit for sacrifice (medhya), therefore the Horse—sacrifice came to be known as Asvamedha. He who knows this verily knows the Horse—sacrifice.
Prajapati, desiring again to sacrifice with the great sacrifice, imagined Himself as the horse and letting the horse remain free, He reflected on it. At the end of a year he sacrificed it to Himself and dispatched the other animals to the gods. Therefore priests even now sacrifice to Prajapati the sanctified horse dedicated to all the gods.
Verily, the sun who shines yonder is the Horse—sacrifice. His body is the year. This earthly fire is the arka (sacrificial fire), whose limbs are these worlds. So these two, fire and the sun, are the arka and the Asvamedha (Horse—sacrifice). These two, again, become the same god, Death. He who knows this conquers further death; death cannot overcome him; death becomes his self; and he becomes one with these deities. 

In this concluding portion the Upanisad prescribes another u asana which is a combination of the prior 2 up asanas - the ashwa upasana and the Agni up asana to arrive at a samasya upasana
This is the main upasana as per Sankara Ashva-arka-samsara-upasana

Here Upanisad points out that ashvaa is another name for viraat - how so?
Upanishad details this as a story.
Brahma performed many yaagaas and finally sukshmaashareeram of viraat departed and the world started bloating and became unholy amedhyam
Virat decided to re enter the body, and again the body  became holy and had expanded
Past tense of expand is ashvayati
Viral shareeram is ashwa  + medhya - swollen and holy

Ashwa the viraat is symbolized by surya or Aditya
Virat agni upasanaa is in the form of Aditya upasanaa
It is mrtyurrupa upasana and one can overcome apamrtyu unnatural death

Monday, August 24, 2015

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad : Ghata bhashyam


2nd brahmananam
  1. naiveha kiṁcanāgra āsīt, mṛtyunaivedam āvṛtam āsīt, aśanāyayā, aśanāyā hi mṛtyuḥ; tan mano'kuruta ātmanvī syām iti. so'rcann acarat, tasyārcata. āpojāyanta, arcate vai me kam abhūd iti; tad evārkasya arkatvam; kaṁ ha vā asmai bhavati, ya evam etad arkasya arkatvaṁ veda.
1) In the beginning there was nothing whatsoever in the universe. By Death, indeed, all this was covered—by hunger, for hunger is, verily, death. "Let Me have a mind," was His desire and He created the mind. Then He moved about, worshipping Himself. From Him, thus worshipping, water was produced. "Verily," Death though, "while I was worshipping, water was produced"; that is why the Arka (fire used in the Horse—sacrifice) is so called. Surely, happiness comes to him who knows how the fire came to be called arka.

Agni upasana is now prescribed// Agni which is part of ashwamedha yaaga

Upanisad 1st glorifies agni by talking about origin of Agni
Sacred origin of Agni here is mentioned by talking about origin of srshti
Naiva Iha an kinchana aaseet
Here nothing existed before the creation/cosmos
On face of it looks like upanishad talks of shunyavada. Sankara refutes this & analyses this by using an example of a pot. Since in this bhashyam the word ghata occurs many times this bhashyam is called Ghata Bhashyam
The bhashyam has 2 sections : before creation did a Karanam exist or not? And 2nd - before creation did a karyam exist or not?
Before the creation of pot is there a clay as a Karanam ? And did the pot exist in the clay or not?

For the 1st discussion Sankara considers the Buddhist Kshankikavijnana vada (also called yogachara)
As per Yogachara there is no external world at all. Mind alone is the world. Varieties of objects in the world correspond to varieties of cognitions or perceptions in the mind.
Each cognition has only momentary Kshanka existence - there is no continuous cognition vijnana - like a cinema reel moving creates a illusion a of continuity.

Everything is momentary. Observer / observed / observation is all kshanimam or momentary. Atman is also kshanikam. They do not accept a clay Karanam as a cause for a pot karyam. Clay producing a pot will imply continuity which they do not accept.

Sankara refutes this, and established that an effect cannot exist without a cause
We have got the knowledge that "that" clay alone is appearing as "this" pot.
This recognition is called pratyabijna -  a v important concept
Pratyabijna is a understanding or perception in which the past and present are connected - "Soyam"

When you see the hall for a 2nd time you recognize this as the same hall you saw yesterday, this perception was not present the 1st Time you see the hall.

This recognition - "re"-cognition is pratibijna

We see the cause in the effect
Whenever you are recognizing an object you are connecting that object to the past & present
Pratyabijna is a proof for continuity

Whatever be the Karana dravyam we see it continuing in the effect also
We see the cloth of yesterday in the shirt, wood in furniture etc

Kshankikavijnana argues there is no continuity - there is only similarity
It is not the same clay perception but a new clay perception appearing as pot & we can take it as same clay because of sadrhyam similarity

Sankara says that argument will not hold good in your philosophy because if you talk about similarity between past & present you require an observer who was continuously existing ( & for the kshanikam vijnana observer is a,so kshanikam only )

Now we come to 2nd portion


Does he pot exist in clay before creation
Naiyayika or logicians say pot does not exist in clay
Asatkaryavadinah

If pot is already there why should it be born?
Shankaran responds by saying pot was existent in potential form
5 reasons are provided

1
Abhivyakti lingatvat 
Because pot comes to manifestation it was already existent

When you switch on a light in a dark room and see a table it means table comes into manifestation which means table was there prior to manifestation
Manifestation occurs when covering is removed

Fir table to manifest the obstacle was darkness
For the pot(in the clay)  to manifest the obstacle is different : 
Clay can assume only one form at a time
When it is in pot form it cannot be in lump form or chair form or table form

Presence of one form becomes the obstacle for manifestation 
Eka karya akara Anyakarya  akaranam avaranam bhavati

If pot has to be created all other forms other than pot form have to be removed inckuding lump "form"
The effort of the pot maker is to remove the avaranam / obstacle - of all other forms and enable the manifestation of the pot

abhivyakti lingatvat 

2nd point
Vipratisheddaat
When pot maker is about to make the pot
" The pot is going to come"

Is this pot that is to come is existent or nonexistent
If you say nonexistent the subject of the sentence cannot be nonexistent

" From the standpoint of the future" - if such be argued then the response is that the statement the pot will come is connecting the future to the present
It is potentially existent

Then if pot is already existent before its creation then how come people will say there is no pot and only a lump of clay
Sankara's response : existence I is of 2 types - functional & actual
Pot is actually existent in all 3 periods of time - before it is made when it is and later when it is broken
Functional existence is temporary because only when it is manifest it is functional

3rd argument
Sarvajnajnaanaat apraamaanyaat

Ishwara (and yogis) can talk about what is going to happen in the future
If  future can be talked about in the present then it must be present in potential form
If not their knowledge of the future will be object less


4th argument
Abhaavatvaat

Nyayayika divide non existence into 4 types:
Prag abava - prior non existence
Pratdvamsa - posterior or later non existence
Atyanta - absolute non existence
Anyonya - mutual non existence

Prior non existence - non existence before its origination / child has prior non existence before its birth
Posterior - non existence after its destruction / pot is nonexistent after its destroyed
Atyanta - nonexistent in all three periods of time
Anyonya = difference or bheda -
Table and table ness is different from cloth and cloth ness
Difference IS there and hence it is a positive category an existent category but it is classified as a type of non existence

Based on this Shankara points out your anyonya abhavaa is bhavarupam and hence the other abhavaa must be positive only
Before srshti karyapragabhava also is bhavarupam -  Anyonyaabhavat

There is NO such thing as non existence in the world
In Advaita jagat abhava is translated as is akin to Brahman

Srshtepurvam ghataha asti

Last the 5th argument
Asatsambandhaabhavat
This is based on definition of utpatti or Janma or birth according to Nyaya

Before srshti pot is nonexistent
There is clay karanam alone; karyam ghata is nonexistent

The pot comes to existence by intimate association with clay
Samavayasambandha
It borrows existence from clay

Shankaran points out the fallacy - Nonexistent pot because of relationship with existent clay - there is a relationship between something nonexistent & something existent
How can such a relationship be possible between asat karanam and sat karyam ?
Relationship is possible only between 2 sad vastu  existent entities


Asataha sambandha abhaavaat

Thus with these 5 arguments srshtehe purvam karyam asti

Finally Sankara concludes with one final point

Let aside arguments. I will provide you Shruti support :
Read the next statement following the 1st line - m rtyunaa idam avrtam aasit
Mrtyu indicates karanam
Idam indicates karyam

And karyam was enveloped in karanam says Shruti here
If karyam or karanam is nonexistent this statement would be absurd

One nonexistent thing can neither cover nor be covered by another entity.
This concludes the ghata bhashyam

Sunday, August 9, 2015

Brihadaranyaka Up : Upadesha Kanda

Upadesha kanda is the 1st 2 chapters
Upadesha Is the teaching to reveal atman or Brahman
Since Brahman is very subtle the Upanishads uses a special method - adhyaropa apavada
Adhyaropaapavadabhyam
Nishprapanchamprapanchyate
Shishyanam sukhabodartham
tatvajnaih Kalpitakramah

Revealing Brahman through this method is called Upadesha

3 terms are important in this method
Sat trikale vidyamananm always existent
Asat never existent
Mithya dependent existence and has to depend on sat

Adhyaropa means Shruti accepting the existence of the world & talks about its origination, accepts varieties in the universe, accepts means and end & all the cosmic laws.

Then in the later portion the same Shruti now negates the existence of the world apavada
Since Shruti is accepting the existence of the world, world cannot be asat, and since it is negating it world cannot be sat either. Thus we derive that according to the Shruti world is Mithya

Mithya vastu does not have independent existence & requires a substratum. Since Shruti has negated the cosmos as Mithya there has to be  some vastu other than the cosmos and whatever is in it which is satyam as its substratum. That vastu is nothing but I - the observer - unnegateable badhasakshirupena I alone remain.
Mithya prapancha and satyam I are arrived by Adhyaropaapavadabhyam

Since Mithya has only dependent existence & therefore it is as good as nonexistent
Mithya prapancha is as good as nonexistent
So I the self am Nishprapancham atmatattvam

The benefit of this knowledge - that I am satyam & entire universe is Mithya - I get the knowledge that Mithya cannot affect satyam & so world cannot affect I the sat vastu

First chapter of the Upadesha kanda does Adhyaropa
Second chapter of Upadesha kanda does the apavada

In Adhyaropa world is accepted & divided into avyakrta or avyakta prapancha & vyakrta or vyakta prapancha - namarupakarmakrtam - unmanifest aspect of the cosmos & manifest aspect of the cosmos.

The vyakrta prapancha is subdivided further into sadhana prapancha & saadhya prapancha - means and ends.

First 3 sections or brahmana of the 1st chapter deal with means and ends detailed in the Veda & we find 3 different upasanas - ashwa Agni & prana upasanas. Later the end is discussed hiranyagarbha prapti or brahmaloka prapti

1st upasanas discusses a horse upasana
Svatantra upasana is a meditation is done independtly for some result
Karmanga upasana is a meditation done as part of a ritual & ritual alone is primary will give the phalam but the upasana here is a part of the ritual which provides an added benefit (karmanga)

Here ashwa upasana is a karmanga upasana for ashwamedha yaaga which is the highest type of yaaga or yagna. Here as part of the yaaga the ashwa or horse has to be meditated upon.
Only Kshatriyas have adhikaraa for ashwamedha yaaga.

Other Varnas ashwamedha yaaga phalam can be attained if they do ashwa upasana only.

Here ashwa is not meditated upon as a horse but we are supposed to visualize the world -in other words-  virat upasana.As per Anandagiri he should think of himself as the ashwa and do upasana.

The Upanishad details which part of virat is to be meditated upon on which part of the horse.
Purpose is to  expand the mind to visualize the Cosmos.

  Parts of the horse & corresponding parts of the cosmos are enumerated


Head : dawn
Eye : Sun
Prana : wind
Mouth : Agni
Body : Year
Back : heavens
Stomach : sky
Hoof : earth
Sides : primary directions
Ribs : secondary directions
Limbs : seasons
Joints : months & fort nights
Legs : days & nights
Bones : stars
Muscles : space
Undigested food : sand
Naadi : rivers
Muscles sides of the heart : mountains
Hair : trees & herbs
Front part  : rising sun
Back part : setting sun
Stretching pod the body  : Lightning
Shaking of body : Thunder
Urinating : rain
Speech : speech

Verse 2:
Purastat mahima : a golden cup
Paschaat mahima : silver cup
The day & night
Horse alone is the vehicle of devas Asuras gandharvas & humans
Origin of this horse is ocean samudra - ucchaishravas was borne of samudra mathanam

Horse has 2 meanings - horse & virat
Samudra is taken as ocean and as ishwara

Bhutani samutpadya dravanti asmin That from which the cosmos originates and resolves unto
Ocean is also called samudra as the rivers originate & resolve into
Bandhu - sthitikaranam

Hence ashwa is great
With this ashwa brahmananam ends
This upasana has to be combined with the next - Agni upasana